American Ex-Prisoners of War
                  A not-for-profit, Congressionally-chartered veterans’ service organization advocating for former prisoners of war and their families.

                  Established April 14, 1942.

                  National Headquarters PO Box 3445 Arlington,TX 76007-3445 817-649-2979

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                  As a 501(3)c nonprofit organization, American Ex-Prisoners of War is eligible to receive tax-deductible charitable contributions. GuideStar gathers, organizes, and distributes information about U.S nonprofits, and awards its gold seal in recognition of transparency and currency in financial reporting.
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                  In Their Own Words ....
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                  33 1/2 Months as a Guest of Der Fuhrer ... and a Week More as a Tourist, 55 Years Later
                  by Rev. William W. Williams III
                  I n the summer of 1942 I was the signalman aboard the SS Carlton, a Merchant Marine vessel bound for Murmansk, Russia with military supplies. She was sunk by a torpedo from a German U Boat on the morning of July 5 in the devastation of convoy PQ 17, 350 miles north of Norway.

                  [Editor's Note: William W. Williams III was sailing as a member of the Navy Armed Guard. Armed Guard units were established in the early days of World War II in an attempt to provide defensive firepower to merchant ships traveling in convoy or alone. The ships and men of the merchant marine were what transported the war materiel, supplies, equipment and even troops needed to fight and win the war.

                  The Merchant Marine suffered a casualty rate higher than any other branch of the military, losing 9,300 men. Most of the losses occurred in 1942. The United States Navy Armed Guard (USNAG) were U.S. Navy-enlisted gun crews (Gunner's Mates, Coxswains and Boatswains, Radiomen, Signalmen, Pharmacist's Mates and, toward the end of the war, radarmen serving at sea on merchant ships.

                  The vessels in the Carlton's convoy was proceeding under a close British and US naval escort but were left unguarded and then scattered after covering cruiser forces withdrew to intercept a German raiding flotilla. The convoy subsequently lost 24 of its 35 ships in a week of daylight attacks by German U-boats and aircraft, and the Carlton was one of those lost.]

                  SS Carlton

                  courtesy Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Massachusetts.
                  SS Carlton

                  I was one of 24 "rescued" by German seaplanes (the rest of the crew drifted, rowed and sailed for nearly three weeks, landed in Norway, and joined us in Milag-Marlag Nord much later.)

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                  We who were picked up landed in Kirknes, Norway, and were incarcerated in Stalag 322, a camp for dissident Norwegian schoolteachers. I was given a dog tag hammered out of a tin can with the number: 322/1927, my identification for the entire time—I still have it!

                  On a German cargo ship we reached Oslo, Norway. On a larger and faster ship we came to Aarlborg, Denmark, and by train to Wilhelmshaven, Germany. Because we were the first Americans to be captured, and there were no American camps at the time, we were taken to Milag-Marlag Nord, in Tarmstedt, a short way from Bremen, a stalag for British Navy prisoners.

                  Non-commissioned officers were not required to work, and I could have remained there for the rest of the war, but I wished to escape. So, I exchanged identity with a British seaman who was being forced to work. In April 1943, posing as Henry Rose of England, I went by train to Charlottenhof, Obersilesia, to work with a small group of prisoners repairing an irrigation canal.

                  Five days later, another prisoner and I walked off the job. We thought we had everything planned, except that we didn't know about the tracking dogs in the next village. They soon found us, and we surrendered and were separated. I was taken to Stalag 8B in Lamsdorf.

                  A short time after, I was called to headquarters, presented with my original dog-tag (322/1927), and sentenced to five days solitary confinement on bread and water for escaping and trying to confuse my kind "rescuers." I never found out how they discovered the switch in identity.

                  At that time (April 1943), an American Army sergeant and I were the only Americans in 8B. Because we were non-British, we were housed in compound 10 with prisoners from India, Australia, New Zealand, North Ireland, Greece and Canada. The Canadians were from the Black Watch Division and had been captured in the failed landing at Dieppe, France. Because of circumstances surrounding their capture, they were forced to wear handcuffs day and night.

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                  While in 8B, I began attending church services and was called into the Christian ministry. After the war, I returned home, went to college and seminary, and am now a retired American Baptist minister.

                  In February of 1944, I was transferred to Stalag 2B in Hammerstein, Pommerania, an all American camp. I became the acting chaplain when the present chaplain was repatriated. In this capacity, I went out of the camp for many weekends to hold services at the various arbeits kommandos.

                  I was in the city of Danzig in January of 1945 when the Russian army broke through on the Eastern Front. The city was evacuated, and I was on the last train to leave the city.

                  By early February, the Russians were approaching Stalag 2B, and the camp was abandoned by the Germans. We were placed in groups of three hundred or more and headed west on foot.

                  [Editor's Note: In the final stages of World War II in Europe, as the Soviet Army advanced into Germany, Allied POWs, without adequate rest, shelter, food, clothing and medical supplies, were force-marched westward in groups of 200 to 300 in the so-called "Long March." German authorities had decided to evacuate their POW camps in order to delay liberation of the prisoners.

                  From a total of 257,000 western Allied prisoners in German military prison camps, over 80,000 were forced to walk across Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Germany in extreme winter conditions over a period of some four months.

                  At the same time, hundreds of thousands of German civilian refugees, most of them women and children, as well as civilians of other nationalities, were also making their way westward on foot.

                  January and February 1945 were among the coldest winter months of the 20th century in Europe. The march from Stalag VIII-B (referred to as the "Lamsdorf Death March") was similar to the better-known Bataan Death March (1942) in terms of mortality rates. Official sources estimate that 1,121 U.S. POWs did not survive.]

                  After wandering around for sixty days, we crossed the Elbe River at Domitz. On April 14, we were strafed by American planes and I ran away. I was lucky to come upon an American outpost and was free at last!

                  [Editor's Note: (The following account was provided by Rev. Williams's daughter.) "After he escaped and made it to the American army encampment, Bill played an instrumental role in rescuing the 300 prisoners he had left behind. He led an army truck convoy back to where his fellow marchers had become pinned down in a firefight with German soldiers. He was in the front seat of the first truck waving frantically to his friends, who at that point must have figured they had pretty much run out of luck."]

                  By truck I went to Hildesheim, by plane to LeHavre and Camp Lucky Strike, where I rejoined some of the men from my ship whom I had not seen since my first escape. By plane together, we went to England and by ship to Boston, MA and home.


                  For many years after my return, I entertained the hope of revisiting the sites where I had been held as a prisoner of war. Finally it became possible. My son William W. Williams IV and I flew out of Logan airport in Boston on Oct. 10, 2000 at noon and landed at Tegel in Berlin.

                  We picked up our rental car and headed for Bremen where we stayed the first night. In the morning we traveled east to Tarmstedt, the location of Milag-Marlag Nord, just eighteen miles away. It had been a camp for enemy Navy and Merchant Marine sailors and was where I spent the first nine months of my captivity.

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                  To conserve travel time, we decided to go to 2B next and then to 8B before returning to Berlin for the trip home.

                  MILAG-MARLAG NORD: Our first stop in Tarmstedt was at a bank to exchange some currency, and begin our inquiry to locate the camp. No one in the bank could speak English, but as I am still conversant in Deutsch, I said I had been a "Kriegsgefangener" there in 1942, and wanted to visit the area.

                  An elderly farmer was in the bank cashing a check. When he heard the word "Kriegsgefangener" he came right over to us and said "Warten sie hier, bitte", and then went to the telephone.

                  Signalman William W. Williams at rest
                  William W. Williams III, USNAG Signalman, at ease

                  He had asked me to wait while he called the Burgermeister (Mayor), who knew all about the prison camp and would like to meet us. We got in the car and followed him to the mayor's house.

                  What a stroke a luck! We could never have found it by ourselves. The entire area had been demolished and obliterated and planted to forest some forty years ago.

                  The mayor took us in his own car down an old logging road to one lone barracks that had been preserved in the middle of the forest. It was now a private dwelling.

                  That is all there is left of a compound that held Royal Navy sailors and Merchantmen since 1940 and the crew of my ship which had been sunk in 1942. Incidentally, the area is now called "Westertimke."


                  A single barracks: all that is left.

                  The mayor told us of the editor of a nearby newspaper who had collected a documentary of the camp. After good-bye to the mayor and the farmer, we headed for the town of Zeven, and found the newspaper office. The editor himself was not available, but had left word for one of the staff to take us upstairs to the archives and show us newspaper size photographs of the camp taken through the years. On the table was a documentary brochure that had been printed and was for us to take home.

                  STALAG 2B HAMERSTEIN: Our next destination was Stalag 2B. That was the last camp I was held from Feb. 1944 to Feb. 1945, when it was abandoned in the face of the Russian advance from the East. The camp was broken up into groups of three or four hundred men and marched on foot westward, wandering seemingly aimlessly until we reached Saltzwedel some sixty days later. That's where I left the column and liberated myself into the hands of an American gun emplacement.

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                  Starting with Saltzwedel, my son and I retraced my footsteps in reverse, crossing the Elbe River at Domitz, where we spent the night at a country inn. I was anxious to see again the town of Parchim where our march group passed the end of an airport runway lined with fire engines manned by women, and from which experimental jets took off. After the war, it was occupied by the Russian military who used it as a military air base. Now it again is a Polish town. The airport has been completely modernized and has scheduled weekly international flights to Spain.

                  As we wound our way eastward to Stettin, where we stayed overnight, I recalled we had been herded into barns at night to sleep and were now passing the very ones in which we had stayed.

                  Hamerstein is no longer on the map. It is now a town called "Czarne."

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                  We inquired at Town Hall, and one of the employees graciously drove us to the campsite. Like Marlag, it had been leveled and planted to trees. Because thousands of Russian soldiers had been imprisoned there too and had perished through disease and neglect, during the Russian occupation the mass graves had been dug up and the bodies reburied with markers.

                  In a small park there is a tall memorial marker and as far as the eye can see there are the grave markers with the hammer and sickle emblem. The town has a public relations booklet which contains a short history of Stalag 2B and a picture of the memorial park.

                  Credit: MOs810 / CC BY-SA (
                  Okonecczyzna (Stalag IIB Hammerstein) marker in Czarne Memorial Park,

                  Czarne Memorial Park, plaque at base of monument

                  Czarne Memorial Park, with Hammer and Sickle gravemarkers

                  STALAG 344/8B LAMSDORF, OBERSILESIA: Before going to Stalag 8B, Bill and I took a side trip to Gdansk. I was there on a preaching mission out of 2B in Jan. 1945 when the Russian army broke through on the eastern front. Because of the Russian advance, the entire civilian population was evacuated. I was on the last train to leave the city on my way back to 2B.

                  After spending the night in Gdansk, Bill and I headed south to Lamsdorf, now Lambinowisce, the site of Stalag 8B. The Lamsdorf camp complex was created during the Franco-Prussian war and operated during the First and Second World Wars. Soldiers from all the armies fighting Germany were imprisoned there. During WWII, around 300,000 prisoners of 50 nationalities passed through Lamsdorf. It is now an elaborate POW museum similar to our Andersonville.

                  Credit: Julo / Public domain
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                  Nearby there is a huge public park where thousands of Russians had been housed, and where they died by the thousands. In the midst of the park there is a huge monument commemorating all the prisoners of all the wars. The site where the British (4,000) and the Americans (2) were held is now a Polish army artillery range and not accessible to the public.

                  The staff at the museum was glad to see me as the first confirmation that there had been any Americans there at all. I was there for ten months from May 1943 to January 1944, where I did 5 days solitary on bread and water for having escaped originally. The museum has publications and videos and a website well worth visiting.

                  Before returning home, Bill and I spent two nights and a day seeing the sights of Berlin.

                  Westbound march, on foot (1945);   老王vp 下载 Eastbound stops, by car (2000).  Distance: 355 mi. (571 km)

                  posted 7/8/20

                  Statement of The American Ex-Prisoners of War before the Committees on Veterans' Affairs, U.S. Senate/U.S. House Of Representatives, March 3, 2023
                  National Commander Robert G. Certain
                  Chief Executive Officer Cheryl Cerbone
                  Legislative Officer Charles Anthony Susino
                  Chairmen Mark Takeno and Jerry Moran, and members of the House and Senate Veterans' Affairs committee and guests, my name is Robert Certain, National Commander of the American Ex-Prisoners of War. Thank you for the opportunity to express our comments today.

                  Our legislative agenda has been very consistent year to year. It is based on the earned benefits of the veteran for serving their country, never using the word "entitlements" in the same sentence as veteran. Its center is healthcare and fair compensation to the veteran and their family.

                  We are grateful for the efforts of this committee and this Congress over this past year. You have stepped up and passed several key pieces of legislation in support of our veterans. Your time is scarce and other major Congressional agendas often displace the attention on veterans' needs so we ask for your patience, persistence, and unwavering support.

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                  The second allows this nation to live up to the promise that we will never forget those still missing in action. Prominent federal buildings and national war memorials will now fly the iconic POW/MIA flag alongside the American flag throughout the year thanks to legislation signed into law in November. The proposal, passed without objection in the House and the Senate earlier in 2023, is designed to help highlight the continued sacrifice of military families whose loved ones are still unaccounted for overseas, estimated at about 82,000 individuals.

                  And importantly for the surviving partners of our veteran heroes: The National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2023 completely eliminates the Widow's Tax after three years. No changes will take place in calendar year 2023. In 2021, one-third of the SBP will be restored. In 2023, two-thirds will be restored. On January 1, 2023, the SBP will be completely restored and surviving spouses will receive their SBP and DIC payments in full. Again, this was a long time coming and will positively affect nearly 65,000 surviving military spouses.

                  Thank you for your efforts.

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                  Below is a letter received as this testimony was being written: Dear Cheryl (CEO Cheryl Cerbone)

                  As a dependent of a former Ex-POW, I am reaching out to you after reading your most recent letter in the bulletin.

                  My mother, Theresa Hoffmann, is a widow and soon to be 98 years old. My dad, Edward I Hoffmann was a POW for 42 months during WW II. He was with the 59th Coast Artillery and captured on Corregidor. Dad passed away in February 1998 from malignant tumor behind his eye. He was 100% disabled Veteran.

                  I moved my mom to Scottsdale, AZ from Omaha, NE four years ago when she could no longer care for herself. Here in Phoenix we have "assisted care homes" which are much more affordable than those larger care facilities. Mom ran out of her Long Term Care Insurance in 2018. At that time I had to negotiate with the owner of the care home a cost that mom could afford which then I had to move her into a shared room. Mom had some money in her savings which I have been supplementing to cover her room, board & care.

                  In August, I had to find a different assisted care home because the owners decided to build a bigger brand new home on the same site. The cost was going from $3,600/month to $5,500/month, so I no choice but to find another care home that would care for her at $3,600/month.

                  Mom is bedridden and although she is somewhat mentally aware, her body has given up on her. Fortunately, the new care home is just around the corner from where my husband and I live. My brother also lives with us who has multiple myeloma and we transport him to doctor appointments and kidney dialysis 3x a week. I walk over daily to help feed mom dinner.

                  Currently, I am supplementing mom's monthly care from her remaining savings of $8,900. Her current DIC is $1,956.00; SS is $1,180 and she has a small pension of $285.00/month which = 3,421.00/month. The difference is $179.00 a month. She will run out of her savings in 49 months. Upon her death, I will most likely need most of that savings to transport her body back to Omaha to be buried with my dad at the cemetery where he is placed. No cremation as she wishes.

                  My plea is an increase in her DIC for $179.00 a month more for her. I had to move her from Omaha to one assisted living home and three different rooms negotiating costs. Then negotiating again with another assisted care home because she doesn't have the funds for the care she needs this time in her life. This shouldn't be the scenario for a widower of a former POW.

                  My parents were very involved and volunteered their time at the VA hospital as well as organized the POW Chapter in Omaha. Mom was adjunct secretary of the POW Chapter as well as chairperson for many, many years. Both are life time members.

                  In hopes of Congress listening at your March testimony, perhaps this letter will help. All she needs is $179.00 a month to continue her care. If this plea should fall on someone else's ears, please let me know. I'm afraid Congress couldn't care less as they are more involved with impeachment hearings than a 97 year old widow of a former POW and disabled veteran.

                  Thank you for taking the time to hear me out and for all that you do for our Ex-POW's. Sincerely,
                  Mary (Hoffmann) Rumer

                  Do your mothers have to live like this? Could your mothers live on this? don't think so.

                  There are two bills currently before this Congress�HR3221 with 14 cosponsors and S1047 with just 4 cosponsors. Both of these bills were referred to YOUR committees in April 2023. One year ago, with no action except shuffling to subcommittees. You owe it to these most vulnerable of our citizens to do more and do it now. We should not and can not be a nation who abandons the surviving spouse of its veterans.

                  And along this line, did you know that in order to be eligible for DIC, the veteran must have been rated as 100% totally disabled for a period of 10 years? Many years ago, this requirement was changed for ex-POWS to 1 year, but the vast majority of the 778,000 who currently are rated at 100% still had to meet that 10-year requirement. It takes years � sometimes decades � to increase disability ratings to 100%. And by that time, the veteran is usually in poor health overall. We want this Congress to look at reducing the period from 10 years to 1 year for ALL veterans.

                  There are other concerns we have as well. In 1981, Congress passed Public Law 97-37 entitled "Former Prisoners of War Benefit Act." This law accomplished several things. It established an Advisory Committee on Former Prisoners of War and mandated medical and dental care.

                  As Past Chairman of the Advisory Committee, I am concerned that the FACA (Federal Advisory Committee Act) term limits has resulted in the VA Advisory Committee on Former POWs being populated by well-meaning people with no real understanding of or passion for former POWs. That, coupled with the virtual lack of attention from the last several VA Secretaries, has relegated this Committee to the back burner of VA attention back burner of VA attention by moving it from the Secretary�s office and placed several levels down under the Veterans Benefit Administration. That placement has made it easy to ignore and its recommendations easy to lose. Some of the unresolved issues when I timed out as Chairman.

                  • the failure, inability, or unwillingness of the VA to coordinate its list of �former POWs� with the DoD list, with many more names on the VA list than is justified
                  • the poor outreach efforts of the VA to find and include known (by DoD) POWs into the VA disability and healthcare system
                  • the failure of the VA to insure the initial and ongoing training of a medical team (to include MD, PA, NP, RN, social worker) to treat and care for former POWs in each and every VAMC
                  • the failure of accountability of the VA for APPROVED VAPOW Committee recommendations made over the course of the last 25-30 years.

                  Every committee member with long experience and strong connection to the former POW community has been removed from the Committee, along with their corporate knowledge. I never received any report from the VA about the approved recommendations and where they stood in current practice and enforcement. In our opinion, the Committee should be exempt from term limits and its membership should be limited to former POWs, their spouses or children, members of the Pensacola Mitchell Center team, and a certified VA POW doctor.

                  We strongly recommend that Congress pass legislation (possibly titled the John S. McCain Disability Act) to declare all former POWs, as verified by the DoD, to be rated by the VA at 100% disabled from the point at which the legislation is enacted, without further protocol exams. This is totally consistent with the POW list of presumptives passed by Congress over 30 years ago.

                  For the veteran population as a whole, I would also ask for assistance.

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                  Additionally�the veterans� means test for access to health care must be eliminated. Should a veteran who worked two or three jobs to provide better for his family later be deprived of healthcare? Each has served his country and earned the same benefits so let us not deprive any deserving veteran of healthcare.

                  It is most insulting to us when we hear the use of the word entitlements regarding any benefits to the veteran. These are all earned benefits where the veteran has served and sacrificed. Calling them "entitlements" relegates the program to a handout and needs to be eliminated from the language used for veterans.

                  During wartime, there have been civilian POWs held in enemy prison camps, often side by side with our military prisoners of war. In WWII, wives and children were also held with their husbands and fathers. The parents were often individuals working on government contracts building facilities for the military which lead to their capture. To date, they do not receive any compensation nor health benefits other than dental resulting from their imprisonment. Over time, the numbers of these individuals has reduced dramatically yet, there is time to do the right thing and include them within the VA healthcare system. This is deserving treatment for those civilians imprisoned because they were supporting our military operations. It has been decades since a bill has been introduced to correct this long overdue injustice. We ask that you take action in this Congress.

                  We are a small organization. Since our founding on April 14, 1942 after the Fall of Bataan, we have worked to bring attention to and support for Ex-Prisoners of War. At the height of our membership, we had 33,000�today it is less than 9,000. In fewer years than we would like, our concerns will not be heard�our needs will not merit attention by Congress.

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                  Additionally, we strongly support the efforts of Honor-Release-Return and The Ride Home, but challenge you to increase results. Since the early days of the 20th Century (WW I) the United States has left more than 100,000 Military personnel either in the hands of our enemy or unaccounted for on the field of battle. Despite the well-publicized/ verbalized policy �Leave No Man Behind�, we have only accounted for approximately 10,000 of those over the last eight decades. Honor-Release-Return is committed to bringing the accounting of the remaining Missing in Action to a close. The Ride Home, Inc. pays tribute to Former American POWS and the families of those Americans still Missing in Action. National POW/MIA Recognition Day, the third Friday in September, reminds us of the sacrifices our soldiers and their families make for our country every day and our responsibility to let them all know that WE WILL NOT FORGET. Combined conflict totals in the last century equal more than 120,000 prisoners of war repatriated and more than 83,000 still listed as MISSING IN ACTION.

                  Efforts in North Korea have stalled; the last unilateral turnover of remains was in 2018. There were 10 recovery missions in Southeast Asia in 2023 � 4 in Vietnam, 5 in Laos, 1 in Cambodia � but the work is slow and time is running short. It has been 45 years since hostilities ceased.

                  The vast majority of those missing from World War II may never be recovered. And we don�t even pursue World War I.

                  We can and must do better. You must make it so.

                  We also work closely with the P.O.W Network. The P.O.W. Network was originally formed 30 years ago as an educational group to maintain the focus on the POW/MIA issue. Over the years, maintaining the almost 4000 biographies of those prisoners or missing during Vietnam has taken a backseat to answering daily questions on false claims of heroism or POW captivity. The mission now is to see that those recording history will be held accountable. Facts, not cover-up or fairy tales must be the most important basis for these historical efforts � be it POW/MIA or veterans military claims. According to The New York Times, the Department of Veterans Affairs paid disability benefits to more than six hundred people falsely claiming to have been POWs in the Vietnam and Persian Gulf wars. The number of stolen valor cases reported to the FBI has tripled in the last decade. In fact, more imposters lie about earning high military declarations for battlefield bravery than the actual number of real-life hero recipients. These imposters trade on tales and the trappings of military valor to secure privileges such as career advancements and even unearned veterans� benefits.

                  This is unacceptable on virtually every level. Before awarding benefits to anyone claiming to be recipients of military medals, particularly Medal of Honor, Purple Heart, or Prisoner of War, the VA must check first with the Department of Defense for verification of such claims. Only after verification shall benefits be granted.

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                  Thank you for your time and attention in support of ex-POWs and all veterans � deserving heroes every one.

                  The Pueblo Marks a Fifty-Second Anniversary. In Absentia.

                  The oldest commissioned vessel in the U.S. Navy is the USS 老王vp2022. Known affectionately as "Old Ironsides," this wooden-hulled, three-masted heavy frigate is also the oldest commissioned naval vessel still afloat in the world today.

                  【图片】回复:新文老文一起推,加盘【言情小说吧】_百度贴吧:2021-1-9 · 新文老文一起推,加盘..啊!这该死的美味小说简介:晋江2021.6.14完结文案:唐语误入厨神争霸大赛的舞台,可她根本不会烹饪。一道道看似简单的题目,却要注入灵魂,信伎,人生感悟。什么鬼啊!(摔)为什么大家做菜的姿势总是奇奇

                  Today, still seaworthy and with a crew of 60 officers and sailors, USS Constitution participates proudly in ceremonies, educational programs, and special events. She is berthed at Pier 1 of the old Charlestown Navy Yard at one end of Boston's Freedom Trail and is open to visitors year-round (free tours).

                  The Navy's second oldest commissioned vessel leads a life considerably less glamorous. The USS 老王2.2.3 has the dubious distinction of being the only commissioned ship of the U.S. Navy being held captive by a hostile power. Launched in 1967, she is today moored in the Potong River in Pyongyang, where she, too, serves as a museum ship, but of a different sort: part of North Korea's "Victorious War Museum."

                  On January 23, 1968 the USS 老王2.2.0 (AGER-2) was attacked in international waters by North Korean forces. Eighty-two surviving crewmembers were captured and held prisoner for eleven months.

                  The ship that would become Pueblo was originally christened in 1944 as a U.S. Army vessel. She was an 850-ton general-purpose small-cargo ship. During World War II she, with a sister ship, saw duty to the South Pacific theatre.

                  Mothballed after the war, she was transferred to the Navy in April 1966 and renamed. Shortly after, she was converted to a research ship and re-designated AGER-2 (part of the Navy's Auxiliary General Environmental Research program). Following training operations off the U.S. West Coast, Pueblo departed for the Far East to undertake electronic intelligence collection and other duties.

                  On the day of her capture, the USS Pueblo was running an electronic surveillance mission for the National Security Agency some 14 miles off the North Korean coast when she came under attack by gunboats and warplanes. One of her crew members was killed and her captain and 10 others were wounded in the melee.

                  古伋言情小说,好看的古伋言情小说 - 奇书网:2021-1-13 · · 晋江VP2021-1-11完结总书评数:327 当前被收藏数:1337花畔自小被幽冥之主临渊养大,灵力无边,是冥界赫赫有名的一霸。自幽冥之主魂飞魄散后,众鬼想欺凌花畔,却个个被打的鼻青脸肿。

                  credit: Laika ac from USA / CC BY-SA (
                  The Pueblo moored in 2012 (before being moved to its present spot) at Taedong River dock in Pyongyang, capital of the Democratic People 's Republic of Korea. It now serves as a tourist attraction.

                  The Pueblo was not meant to be configured for battle. Her defensive posture was as a civilian merchant vessel. Her armament consisted of two M2 Browning .50-caliber machine guns, which were wrapped in cold-weather tarpaulins. The ship's ammunition was stored belowdecks. The guns were unmanned, and no attempt was made to man them.

                  According to a National Security Agency monograph, the machine guns took at least ten minutes to activate and only one crew member had ever had any experience with such weapons, and that gained while he had been in the Army.

                  The 老王vp2022 followed the North Korean vessels as ordered, but stopped immediately outside North Korean waters. She was again fired upon, and a sailor, fireman Duane Hodges, was killed. The ship was boarded and crew members had their hands tied and were blindfolded, beaten, and prodded with bayonets.

                  老王v2.2.8 was taken into port at Wonsan on the eastern side of the Korean Peninsula, and the crew was moved twice to different prisoner of war (POW) camps. Upon release, the crew reported that they had been starved and regularly tortured while in North Korean custody. This treatment turned worse after the North Koreans realized that crewmen were surreptitiously extending their middle fingers in staged propaganda photos.

                  credit: photo by Joseph A. Ferris III
                  The USS Pueblo's starboard side (facing the water), at Taedong River dock in 2012: not nearly as well tended as the port side facing the dock and visible to tourists.

                  The captain, Cmdr. Lloyd Bucher, was psychologically tortured and put through a mock firing squad. Eventually the North Koreans threatened to execute his men in front of him unless Bucher agreed to confess to his and the crew's transgressions. Korean authorities failed to catch the meaning of some of the phrasing the captain used in his hand-written confession. "We paean the DPRK [North Korea]. We paean their great leader Kim Il Sung."

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                  Following 11 months of captivity, an official apology by the United States government (later retracted), a written admission of spying and an assurance the U.S. would not conduct spying activities in the future, the men were taken to the southern edge of the Demilitarized Zone.

                  President Lyndon Johnson had considered a number of aggressive response plans, including a nuclear option. But with the U.S. bogged down militarily, at the height of the Vietnam war, no retaliation would be forthcoming.

                  Johnson was persuaded that diplomacy was the best option for getting the Pueblo's crew home safe.

                  credit: U.S. Navy / Public domain
                  The U.S. Navy signal intelligence-gathering ship USS Pueblo (AGER-2) off San Diego 19 October 1967.

                  At length, after 335 days of confinement the crew was allowed to walk across the "Bridge of No Return" into South Korea. Many were crippled, malnourished and half blind from their detention. But they were at last free.

                  The ship was not; North Korea held onto that.

                  In 2006, a suit was filed in the U.S. District Court on behalf of crew members under the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act, which provided an exception to the immunity of foreign states. Their lawyers claimed compensation under the Justice for Victims of State-Sponsored Terrorism Act, an act originally designed to benefit the Iranian hostages. They argued that it be construed more broadly to include their four clients from the U.S.S. 老王vp 下载.

                  In 2017, the court awarded the three surviving crew members $16.75 million each, and Bucher's estate $12.5 million for the abuse suffered during capture and the "physical and mental harm that (they) likely will continue to endure throughout the rest of their lives."

                  In 2018, more than 100 crew members and relatives subsequently joined a lawsuit, filed in a federal court under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act, which allows suits against state sponsors of terrorism for torture, hostage-taking, personal injury or death.

                  North Korea has not responded to the lawsuit, but plaintiffs are eligible for relief from a US government fund set up to support victims of terrorism. President Trump added North Korea to the list of countries designated as state-sponsors of terrorism in 2017 (after it was removed from the list in 2008 by President Bush), re-opening the window to litigation against Pyongyang under the 1976 Act.

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                  Richard Rogala is one of those crewmembers. His story eventually came to the attention of Billy Cox, a writer for the 老王2.2.0 (Florida).

                  When the U.S. announced that on April 2018 it had seized North Korea's second-largest cargo ship for violating sanctions, Rogala suggested exchanging that ship for the Pueblo.

                  古伋言情小说,好看的古伋言情小说 - 奇书网:2021-1-13 · · 晋江VP2021-1-11完结总书评数:327 当前被收藏数:1337花畔自小被幽冥之主临渊养大,灵力无边,是冥界赫赫有名的一霸。自幽冥之主魂飞魄散后,众鬼想欺凌花畔,却个个被打的鼻青脸肿。

                  The Herald Tribune story recounts: "More than 51 years after the Pueblo's seizure, America's confiscation of North Korea's "Wise Honest" freighter is stirring dim hopes for an exchange among the 60 survivors, thanks at least in part to a symbolic Congressional resolution introduced in the House on June 20, 2023.

                  "Like so many Americans, U.S. Rep. Greg Steube (R.-Sarasota, the resolution's sponsor, knew little about the incident until Rogala pulled him aside following a county veterans' meeting that April.

                  "'Rick brought it to my attention, I looked into it, and it was a surprise to me that, over all these years, we had done no work to get the vessel back,' says Steube, an Army veteran."

                  Rogala, like most of the captives had been beaten and placed on starvation rations during the ordeal. While he was not in the infamous "middle finger" propaganda photo, one morning he was called to the door of his cell and suddenly punched in the mouth and knocked to the floor.

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                  As part of the North Korean Government's efforts to use their captives for propaganda purposes, crew members were bathed, shaved and given clean clothing for staged press conferences. The aim was to illustrate the humane treatment being provided by their captors. Several of the crewmen in the photos and film, however, can be seen with extended middle fingers. They told the North Koreans it was a Hawaiian good luck sign. Later, the captors learned of the significance of "the finger," and administered additional beatings to many of the crew.

                  "Within hours of the announcement of the capture of the "Wise Honest," Sen. Cory Gardner, chairman of the Senate subcommittee on East Asia, began tweeting for a ship swap. Colorado Rep. Scott Tipton, who introduced a symbolic resolution last year similar to Steube's, echoed the senator's idea.

                  "Prior to President Trump's Memorial Day summit in Japan in May 2023, National Security Adviser John Bolton fired up the crewmembers by telling reporters 'Maybe now would be an appropriate time to talk about return of the Pueblo.' But no high-level statements have been issued since."

                  Nor has Rogala heard any more on the subject since.

                  "Time is running out," he lamented recently. "A lot of our guys are losing their enthusiasm. It's been so long, and we're all getting older, tired of pushing it."

                  "The people in Washington at this point have other things on their minds, both in general and with North Korea specifically."

                  As of this writing, approximately 55 of the original 82 officers and men still survive. Rogala mentions that the Pueblo Veterans Association will meet for its 52nd anniversary reunion in September 2023. "We'll see then whether it's still a hot topic for them and how much they still want to pursue." He's not optimistic. But he's not lost hope.

                  Maybe sometime in the next fifty years.

                  posted 2/27/20

                  Last Mass
                  by Richard A. Stratton (USN ret.)

                  By the time I deployed for my war—the Vietnam War—on the USS Ticonderoga, Carrier Air Wing Nineteen, Attack Squadron One Ninety Two (CVA-14; CAW 19; VA-192) —there were not too many noticeable changes. My best friend, Michael Estocin (MOH) and I attended Mass on the forecastle of the Ticonderoga every day we were not on the flight schedule .

                  Seated on folding chairs scattered between the two anchor chains, we followed along with the new order under the guidance of our Priest chaplain, figuring that he would not lead us astray.

                  Circumstances reached a confluence wherein I had the opportunity to shoot myself down in January 1967 (flying an A-4 Skyhawk as part of an armed reconnaissance mission over Thanh Ha Province). Mike had the opportunity to martyr himself in July 1967, taking the mission of a new kid the day before they were to come home and never returning

                  Mike had volunteered for his hop and, strangely enough, I had volunteered to take Mike's hop when I was shot down. He had a critical shipboard meeting to attend. So we had not gotten to attend Mass that day.

                  言情小说 第104页-小说下载|全本小说下载|TXT下载|TXT电子 ...:2021-3-1 · 晋江VP2021-2-23完结总书评数:43当前被收藏数:343营养液数:149文章积分:9,230,197文案为了不让偶像退圈,田雨琪真的是操碎了心。从美帝打飞的回来,过五关斩六将应聘上杨..

                  It was not a racial thing. They meted out the same treatment to their own people who dared to dissent as well to as the Republic of Vietnam patriots who dared oppose them. They inflicted (and continue to inflict) the same punishment on Chinese Vietnamese, native populations and those of mixed race.

                  At the urging of American peace groups, the communists decided some favorable propaganda was needed around Easter time of 1967. One spring evening they dressed me up in their "mess dress" striped-pajama prisoner uniform (the uniform of the day was black boxer shorts and T shirt) and at bayonet point marched me off to the interrogation room.

                  The timing was not unusual, as the most feared interrogations occurred after dark. They sat me down on an interrogation stool and told me that I was to meet a priest and make my "Easter Duty."

                  【图片】回复:新文老文一起推,加盘【言情小说吧】_百度贴吧:2021-1-9 · 新文老文一起推,加盘..啊!这该死的美味小说简介:晋江2021.6.14完结文案:唐语误入厨神争霸大赛的舞台,可她根本不会烹饪。一道道看似简单的题目,却要注入灵魂,信伎,人生感悟。什么鬼啊!(摔)为什么大家做菜的姿势总是奇奇

                  The practice was that everyone went to confession and communion at Easter time no matter what. In retrospect, the communists had in mind that I would confess my "war crimes" and receive communion as a visible sign of my repentance.

                  Priest and Easter Bunny banner Stratton receiving communion in North Vietnamese POW prison
                  Stratton making his Easter Duty in an interrogation room, decorated for the occasion at the prison Maison Centrale ("The Hanoi Hilton").

                  The interrogation room was decorated for Easter as only an infidel could imagine with a bunny rabbit. The guards trotted an elderly Vietnamese gentleman dressed in priestly garb into the interrogation cell.

                  I asked him: "Ubi est domus tui?" [Where do you live?] He replied: "Hanoi." At that point the interrogators burst into the room obviously telling him to "shut mouth." But his reflexive response to my crummy Latin convinced me that he was indeed a Catholic Priest.

                  He appeared to be startled at the intrusion of the interrogator and aghast at the follow-on film crew. The Priest via sign language offered me the opportunity to receive Communion. I accepted the invitation and dropped to my knees. He placed a host on my tongue, the cameras rolled, the lights went out. The Priest got the hook. I was marched back to my cell. At least I received the host on my tongue&nmdash;for the last time as a normal protocol.

                  The propaganda war was heating up over Communist mistreatment of prisoners in North Vietnam. The Red Cross was denied entry to the prisons. Amnesty International never even tried. The internal and international communist position was that American fighting men were "The Blackest of Criminals," "Air Pirates" not entitled to any protections under international law.

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                  Christmas 1967 was their next opportunity. Sometime in December, well after dark, I was told to suit up in my "Mess Dress" again. Nothing good ever happened after dark. At bayonet point I was marched off into a weapons-carrier sized vehicle. I was very nervous. The last time a night time trip like this happened, Doug Hegdahl and I were similarly mounted up, driven to a soccer stadium, exposed to a howling, out-of-control crowd, assaulted in the vehicle and driven off to the Plantation Prison. This time I disembarked at what I found out later was the Hanoi Catholic Cathedral.

                  I was marched into a side door near the rear of the church. They placed me half way down the nave on the Gospel side isolated from everyone else. The place looked like it could hold about 800 to 1,000 congregants. There were maybe 100 people in church. There were perhaps 10 other POWs also in their Mess Dress garb scattered about. The cameras were there.

                  It was obviously a Roman Catholic house of worship. One could never expect to find such an automatic identification in that day and age except by accident.

                  Jesus, Mary and Joseph were in their appointed places. The tabernacle was centrally located with a burning red candle clearly visible indicating the presence of the Blessed Sacrament. There was a Crucifix and it was where it belonged, centrally located above and behind the altar. Various and sundry Saints (Peter, Paul, Teresa, Francis Xavier) were all visible and identifiable.

                  【图片】回复:新文老文一起推,加盘【言情小说吧】_百度贴吧:2021-1-9 · 新文老文一起推,加盘..啊!这该死的美味小说简介:晋江2021.6.14完结文案:唐语误入厨神争霸大赛的舞台,可她根本不会烹饪。一道道看似简单的题目,却要注入灵魂,信伎,人生感悟。什么鬼啊!(摔)为什么大家做菜的姿势总是奇奇

                  An interrogator barked at me: "Go visit the barn!" I was initially nonplussed until I realized he meant the creche at the altar rail. I had no desire to contribute to the success of their propaganda effort, but since I was in a losing situation, I should try to get some benefit out of it. I saw one of our guys approaching the altar rail so I took off to join him. The VC wanted to keep us separated but could not overreact in front of the cameras.

                  The other guy was Jim Mulligan. We knelt there side by side and swapped information as to where we thought we were located, who was our SRO (Senior Ranking Officer), who was in our prisons and when we thought the war would be over.

                  POWs Stratton and Mulligan at the Nativity creche in St. Joseph's Cathedral, Christmas 1967
                  POWs Mulligan and Stratton "visit the barn" in Hanoi's St. Joseph's Cathedral at Christmas time to exchange Christmas greetings and share intel.

                  This is where I found out that a small group of super-resistors were under the shadow of the walls of the Ministry of Defense opposite our jail (the Plantation Prison main gate, 17 Ly Nam Dai). Jim reaffirmed the resistance posture advanced by these leaders.

                  The Mass started and progressed according to the Pre-Vatican II rubric of the Roman Ritual. After the Priest read the gospel of the day and gave a brief homily in Vietnamese, one of our more malicious interrogators, known as "The Rabbit," took the pulpit, and gave his English "Communist Christmas Sermon." Its essence was that baby Jesus, a good communist of a working class family, being born into poverty, was persecuted by the capitalists. He and his family were forced to flee Bethlehem for their lives in their Jeep into Egypt to avoid the American Imperialists and the Yankee Air Pirates. It was a most inspiring sermon; it made one weep with laughter.

                  credit: Arno Kohlem [CC BY-SA 4.0 (]
                  St. Joseph's Cathedral was one of the first structures built by the French colonial government in Indochina. With a Neo-Gothic architectural style said to resemble Notre Dame de Paris, it was opened in December 1886 and is the oldest church in Hanoi. Today there are nearly 4 million Catholics in Vietnam. St. Joseph, the father of Jesus, is considered the patron saint of Vietnam and Indochina.

                  credit: Wikimedia Commons, Gryffindor [CC BY-SA 3.0 (]
                  Interior of Hanoi's St. Joseph's Cathedral in a recent photo.

                  The rest of the Mass went the way it had gone according to the Church of my youth, my seminary days (six years) and up until Vatican II. It was invigorating, reinforcing, inspiring, reassuring, encouraging and inspirational. I was not required to sing, shake hands, swap germs, jiggle, dance, listen to guitar-based protest songs, watch pagan dances on the altar, listen to the priest play the flute, raise my arms in an "alleluia," stomp my feet, clap my hands, or listen to the latest bloviation of the Bishops regarding their personal version of current fads in political correctness or inclusiveness.

                  When Mass was over, the POWs were held in their places and then removed in such a way that they could not come in contact with each other. We had had one more shot to communicate at the Communion Rail after "the barn" visit, but then we were on our own. I was marched back up the center aisle towards the back doors and then pushed off to the left to exit a side door.

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                  Fast-forward to March 1973. Among the reception team for Operation Homecoming at Clark Air Force Base there was to be a Chaplain of your choice. I don't remember the name of the guy I was talking to or much else except that he was a Jesuit.

                  He was playing the role of the "good ole boy," using his first name and wearing sports clothes. I made a general confession and received Communion. But I was confused by the lack of specifics I received when I expressed interest in hearing about the state of the American Catholic Church as of that date.

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                  My Church had left while I was gone, or else it had been hijacked.

                  Guess this marks me as a Traditionalist, but I realized I had, in fact, attended my last Catholic Mass of the "Old Dispensation" -- at bayonet point -- in St. Joseph's Roman Catholic Cathedral, Hanoi, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, December 1967. How about those sour apples!

                  In 2007, I came across a traditional Tridentine Mass** offered at the Immaculate Conception Church, downtown Jacksonville, Florida. I have been attending with great appreciation most Sundays of the year.

                  credit: AndrewAvitus [CC BY 3.0 (]
                  The Basilica of the Immaculate Conception is a parish church in the Diocese of St. Augustine. It serves Jacksonville's oldest Catholic congregation. The current building dates to 1910, an example of Late Gothic Revival architecture. The first building was destroyed by Union forces in the Civil War. A second was destroyed along with most of downtown Jacksonville in the Great Fire of 1901.

                  It only took forty years!

                  (In Honor of: Rev. Charles Costello OMI, Novice Master)

                  * MOH: Medal of Honor.

                  ** Also known as the Traditional Latin Mass or Usus Antiquior, the Roman Rite Mass that appears in typical editions of the Roman Missal published from 1570 to 1962. The Tridentine form of the Mass is available only occasionally in Vietnam.

                  posted 12/30/19

                  Crueler than Fiction: Building the Trans Burma Railway

                  Blowing the bridge in the climactic scene of The Bridge on the River Kwai called for $50,000 worth of explosives and six different camera locations, one of them aboard the train crossing over at the critical moment. Cameramen started their cameras and then had to jump for their lives clear of the explosions.

                  The Bridge on the River Kwai was released in 1957 by Columbia Pictures. The movie was based on the novel Le Pont de la Riviere Kwai (1952), written by French author Pierre Boulle and based on the construction of the Burma Railway in 1942-1943.

                  It was a wildly successful movie, winning seven academy awards including Best Picture. It was the top money maker of 1958, beating out Peyton Place.

                  The film has demonstrated considered staying power over the years. In 1997, it was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the United States Library of Congress. It is included on the American Film Institute's list of best American films ever made. The British Film Institute voted The Bridge on the River Kwai the 11th greatest British film of the 20th Century.

                  The movie is almost entirely a work of fiction. Reality was far more grim.

                  The River Kwai bridge as seen from the tourist plaza (NNE side) in Kanchanburi, Thailand in 2017.

                  The railway bridge that inspired the movie didn't cross the river known at the time as the Kwai. Boulle — who would later write another novel that turned into a highly successful movie, Planet of the Apes — had worked in Malaya and was interned for a time by the Vichy French in Hanoi where he himself suffered severe hardships and forced labour. However, he had never been to the actual location of the Burma railway.

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                  The dramatic destruction of the bridge depicted in the film was purely a creation of the screenwriters. In the movie's most dramatic scene the newly-finished bridge is blown up by the British POW Colonel who had built it. That, too, had no parallel in reality.

                  At the time of its filming, the explosion scene ranked as the most expensive special effects shot in movie history. Rather than use a miniature, the production crew opted to build a full-sized bridge in a valley in Sri Lanka. They wired $50,000 worth of explosives onto the span and to the train that would run along it. Six cameras would cover the shot, one of them aboard the train. The cameramen were to start their cameras and then jump clear of the explosions.

                  On the first filming attempt, one of the cameramen failed to get away and the explosives weren't triggered: the locomotive was run off the end of the bridge into a pile of sandbags. Two days later, after necessary repairs, the shot was ready again. This time, everything went according to plan: the bridge went up in a spectacular fireball, and the train plunged dramatically into the deep gorge below.

                  The movie's first two screenwriters had to conceal their identidy because they were on the infamous Hollywood Blacklist for past political views, real or imagined, and were prohibited from working in the US film industry.

                  One of the seven academy awards the film won was for Best Adapted Screenplay, which put the Academy in an awkward position. It gave the statue to the French author Boulle, who did not speak English. (Foreman and Wilson eventually received Academy Awards as well, posthumously.)

                  What is true is that in 1943 a railway bridge was built by Allied POWs and Asian forced laborers over the Mae Klong river (which would be renamed "Khwae Yai" in the 1960s following the film's success) at a place called Tha Ma Kham, five kilometres from Kanchanaburi, Thailand.

                  Actually, two bridges were built: a temporary wooden one and a permanent steel/concrete bridge a few months later. Both bridges were used for two years, until they were destroyed not by saboteurs but by Allied bombers. Neither looked anything like the bridge in the movie. The steel bridge was repaired and is still in use today.

                  These bridges and many others were critical parts of a 415 km rail line referred to today as the Trans Burma Railway (TBR.) It was constructed starting at its two ends simultaneously: Thanbyuzyat in Burma and Nong Pladuk in Thailand, north to south along the western edge of Indochina, which we now call Southeast Asia.

                  Once completed, it would link the Thai and Burmese railway systems. Owing to the inhumanely harsh condisions attendant to its construction it also gained the name "Death Railway."

                  The purpose of the railway was to give the Japanese military a much-needed land route for expanding their supply lines. It was needed to compensate for reversals suffered at sea against resuscitated Allied naval power.

                  Supposedly many Japanese viewers resented the film's story-line, that incompetent Japanese military engineers had to turn to British expertise to plan and complete the bridge on time. The Japanese were in fact expert engineers. The POWs were nothing to them but manual laborers. The railway was finished ahead of schedule, an extraordinary accomplishment given the extreme conditions, circumstances and terrain.


                  Dysentery, malaria, beriberi, fungal infections known simply as "jungle rot" and savage cholera epidemics were routine. Over one-fourth of the entire workforce is believed to have died during construction.

                  At the turn of the 19th century the British had surveyed a for such a rail route but concluded the project was too difficult, costly and dangerous to build through such dense jungle and wild and uneven topography. But pressing strategic needs and an unexpectedly surging POW population (aggregated from victories in Malaya, Singapore and the Philippines) gave the Japanese strong motivation to tackle the challenge.

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                  One thing the movie got dead right was that the project was built with slave labor including impressed locals and massive numbers of British and U.S. POWs.

                  An estimated 180,000 and 250,000 Southeast Asian civilian laborers and about 61,000 Allied prisoners of war were subjected to forced labor during construction. Truly accurate figures will never be known. About 90,000 civilian laborers and more than 12,000 Allied prisoners died. This according to Wikipedia reports.

                  The Thailand-Burma Railway Centre in Kanchanaburi, Thailand, is dedicated to exploring the wider history of the railway. Its estimates are that over 13,000 prisoners of war perished between late 1942 and late 1945, and it calculates the death toll among Asian laborers probably exceeded 100,000.

                  Everyone agrees the working conditions on the "Death Railway" were beyond appalling. Dysentery, malaria, beriberi, fungal infections known simply as �jungle rot" and savage cholera epidemics were routine. Starvation rations, overwork, poor or no sanitation and systematic brutality on the part of Japanese and Korean engineers and guards were the normal conditions of the day.

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                  From July to October 1943, desperate to finish construction against a deadline, Japanese engineers forced the pace to the point where many men were working virtually around the clock—as much as 62 hours work in a 72-hour period. Rest days were a rarity.

                  The first POWs to go to Burma were Australians. They worked on airfields and other infrastructure initially before beginning construction of the railway in October 1942. The first POWs to work in Thailand at the southern terminus were British soldiers. More POWs were imported from Singapore and the Dutch East Indies as construction advanced.

                  Construction camps housing at least 1,000 workers each were established every 5-10 miles (8-17 km) of the route. Workers were moved up and down the railway line as needed.

                  The real bridge on the "River Kwai" (actually built over the Mae Klong river). Aerial photograph shows severe damage to the middle spans caused by Allied bombing in May 1945.

                  U.S. POWs represented a very small part of the overall POW contingent of the sixty-some- odd-thousand POWs assigned to the TBR. They came mainly from just two sources, the 2nd Battalion, 131st Field Artillery and the survivors of the sunken Navy ship USS Houston.

                  Both groups were captured on the island of Java in March 1942. In all, 534 soldiers from the battalion and 368 survivors of the Houston were taken as prisoners of war. They remained so for 42 months until the end of the war. Most of them were sent to Thailand to work on the Railway, Of the 902 soldiers and sailors taken captive, 163 died in captivity.

                  The parent organization of the 2nd Battalion was the 36th Division, Texas National Guard. The majority of the men in the battalion ranged from 18 to 22 years old. The 2nd Battalion was the only U.S. ground force sent to the Dutch East Indies. The mission was to help the Dutch defend the islands against an invasion, which in fact began February 27, 1942 On March 8, the allies in the Dutch East Indies surrendered and 32,500 soldiers were taken prisoner, mostly Dutch, British, and Australian, and 534 members of the 2nd battalion.

                  The USS Houston was at sea when the Pacific War began and spent the first two months of the war escorting convoys from Australia to the Dutch East Indies. On February 3, 1942 the Houston was damaged in an air attack at the Battle of Makassar Strait which killed 48 men. The Houston also participated in the Battle of the Java Sea on 27 February before being sunk in the Battle of Sunda Strait, February 28 - March 1, along with the Australian light cruiser HMAS Perth and the Dutch destroyer HNLMS Evertsen. 696 crew members died; the remaining 368 were captured by the Japanese

                  Country of origin POWs Number of deaths
                  UK, British India or crown colony 老王v2.2.8 6,904
                  Netherlands or Dutch East Indies 17,990 2,782
                  Australia 13,004 2,802
                  United States 686 133
                  Total 61,811 12,621

                  JJ Karwacki, a retired US Army Colonel living in Kanchanaburi, worked with The Thai-Burma Railway Centre and Museum to to as precisely as possible document the numbers of US POWs who worked on the TBR, the numbers of U.S. deaths and those liberated, name by name. His detailed findings go so far as to identify the cause of death and final resting place of each person in his database.

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                  The total number of US POWs who labored on the TBR, he concludes, was 779, mostly as noted from the 131st FA and the USS Houston. .

                  There were also 28 from the 39 survivors of the sinking of the Merchant Marine ship SS Sawokla who were sent to the TBR (all were liberated) plus one civilian volunteer pilot with the Flying Tigers. He likewise survived.

                  If the ambitious engineering feat pulled off by the Japanese in the Southeast Asian jungle was ruthless and brutal, it was also short lived. When the war ended, the railway was confiscated by the British.

                  On January 16, 1946, the British ordered Japanese POWs to remove a four-kilometer stretch of rail between Nikki and Sonkrai. The railway link between Thailand and Burma was separated to protect British interests in Singapore. The line was closed completely in 1947, but the section between Nong Pla Duk and Nam Tok was reopened ten years later and still operates to this day.

                  The British government sold the functioning railway and related materials to the Thai government for 50 million baht ($1,575,746 in current U.S. dollars).

                  The Burma section was sequentially removed, the rails were gathered in Mawlamyaing, and the roadbed was slowly reclaimed by the jungle.

                  Hellfire Pass: a railway cutting on the railway noted for harsh conditions and the heavy loss of life suffered during construction. The name was supposedly inspired by the sight of emaciated prisoners laboring at night by torchlight, said to evoke a scene from Hell. Photo by DAVID ILIFF. License: CC-BY-SA 3.0

                  posted 3/17/19

                  Statement of Charles A. Susino, National Director/Legislative Officer, American Ex-Prisoners Of War, Before the Committees on Veterans� Affairs, U.S. Senate/U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C., March 7, 2023
                  AXPOW Legislative Officer Charles A. Susino

                  Chairmen and members of the House and Senate Veteran�s Affairs Committee and guests, my name is Charles A. Susino, National Director/Legislative Officer of the American Ex-Prisoners of War.

                  I thank you for the opportunity to express our concerns today. Many of you knew my father, Charles Susino, Jr., National Commander of our organization for many years. It was his voice that urged many of you to do the right thing on behalf of all veterans. I will attempt to channel that voice today. This past July, my family and I, and the veteran community as a whole, lost the strongest advocate on behalf of those who cannot speak to you directly. Many of you knew my dad from his years of testifying. He professed to me and others, "It�s about the deserving veterans receiving want they earned ."

                  So it is on that theme that I proceed.

                  First, we wish to acknowledge the passing of a great American, the 41st President of the United States, George H. W. Bush this past November who proudly served this country both in the military and in public office.

                  We are grateful for your efforts over this past year. This Congress has stepped up and passed several key pieces of legislation in support of our veterans with respect to health care, compensation, and public awareness. We look forward to a productive 2023-20 as the 116th Congress works on our behalf.

                  If you disagree with us—either here today in testimony— or as we work for our fellow veterans, please say so and we will respect your position. Otherwise we ask for your unwavering advocacy on these issues.

                  We draw your attention to several bills which we believe have special merit and request your active support.

                  • The Blue Water Navy Vietnam Veterans Act HR 299 & 203 needs to be passed. It is beyond reasonable when the exposures endured by servicemen and women to dangerous chemicals and toxics takes decades for the government to acknowledge and act. There is a long track record with Agent Orange and other chemicals, yet exposure, treatment, and compensation from 50+ years ago is still being debated. Fortunately the courts have agreed with the navy servicemen who were located within the waters of affected southeast Asia country that certain diseases should be a presumptive.
                  • The previous Bill S 1990, Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Improvement Act must be reintroduced. Its purpose was to amend Title 38, United States Code, to increase amounts payable by the Department of Veterans Affairs for dependency and indemnity compensation, to modify the requirements for dependency and indemnity compensation for survivors of certain veterans rated totally disabled at the time of death, and for other purposes. For many of our veteran�s spouses, DIC is the only source of income and critical to their quality of life. We need to do better by them.
                  • We must reintroduce the National POW/MIA Flag Act to amend Title 36, United States Code, to require that the POW/ MIA flag be displayed on all days that the flag of the United States is displayed on certain Federal property. We must honor those who have served our nation courageously, including those who have not made it home.
                  • Full Military Honors Bill has been reintroduced in this session and needs to be quickly passed. The Bills, in both the House and Senate, would provide full military honors for the funeral of an eligible veteran who:
                    1. is first interred or inurned in Arlington National Cemetery on or after enactment of this bill,
                    2. was awarded the medal of honor or the prisoner-of-war medal, and
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                      "Gold Star-Families Remembrance Day." March 2, 2023 marks the 90th year to honor and recognize the sacrifices made by the veteran and their families who gave their lives to defend freedom.

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                  • It is not modern for a IT system to allow you to schedule a physician appointment yet does not allow to cancel or reschedule.
                  • It is not modern for a treating physician to explain that I know the medicine you need but you need to see a different specialist to receive that care.
                  • It is not modern for veterans to be denied multiple medications because the physician explains, "That is the VA policy. "
                  • It is not modern for a veteran to wait weeks for an appointment with their primary physician for a routine illness. Does the public wait weeks to see their physician for routine illnesses such as an ear ache or a sinus infection? Of course not and neither should the veteran.

                  Many would agree the modernization and culture are the most difficult to achieve. If that is the case than we need to provide the approach including the appropriate metrics to measure the level of attention both from within the VA and its oversight: Congress.

                  In 1981, Congress and the President passed Public Law 97-37. It mandated VA health care for veterans with service connected disabilities as well as other special groups of veterans. It included veterans up to WWI, some 58 years after the end of the war. WWII ended over 75 years ago.

                  We have asked you for the better part of the last decade to revisit the special groups and update to include veterans of WWII, Korea, Vietnam, Cold War, and our recent conflicts in the Middle East. We have requested for many years with no movement on the part of Congress. The political landscape is ever changing and this President may see it appropriate and fair treatment for those that have kept our country free.

                  Thank you for your attention.

                  The House Committee on Veterans� Affairs
                  B234 Longworth
                  House Office Building
                  Washington, DC 20515
                  The Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs
                  Russell Senate Building- Room 412
                  Washington, DC 20510
                  Majority Staff 202-224-9126
                  Minority Staff 202-224-2074


                  Congressman Mark Takano (CA-41), Chairman
                  Congresswoman Julia Brownley (CA-26)
                  Congresswoman Kathleen Rice (NY-04)
                  Congressman Conor Lamb (PA-14)
                  Congressman Mike Levin (CA-49)
                  Congressman Max Rose (NY-11)
                  Congressman Anthony Brindisi (NY-22)
                  Congressman Gil Cisneros (CA-39)
                  Congresswoman Susie Lee (NV-03)
                  Congresswoman Lauren Underwood (IL-14)
                  Congressman Joe Cunningham (SC-01)
                  Congresswoman Elaine Luria (VA-02)
                  Congressman Chris Pappas (NH-01)
                  Congressman Colin Allred (TX-32)
                  Congressman Collin Peterson (MN-07)
                  Congressman Gregorio Kilili Camacho Sablan (Northern Mariana Islands)


                  Rep. Dr. Phil Roe (R-TN),
                  Ranking Member
                  Rep. Gus M. Bilirakis (R-FL)
                  Rep. Amata Coleman Radewagen (R-American Samoa)
                  Rep. Dr. Neal Dunn (R-FL) Rep. Jack Bergman (R-MI)
                  Rep. Jim Banks (R-IN
                  Rep. Andy Barr (R-KY)
                  Rep. Steve Watkins (R-KS)
                  Rep. Chip Roy (R-TX)
                  Rep. Greg Steube (R-FL)


                  Johnny Isakson (R - GA), Chairman
                  Moran, Jerry (KS)
                  Boozman, John (AR)
                  Cassidy, Bill (LA)
                  Rounds, Mike (SD)
                  Tillis, Thom (NC)
                  Blackburn, Marsha (TN)
                  Cramer, Kevin (ND)


                  Jon Tester (D - MT),
                  Ranking Member
                  Murray, Patty (WA)
                  Sanders, Bernie (VT)
                  Brown, Sherrod (OH)
                  Blumenthal, Richard (CT)
                  Hirono, Mazie K. (HI)
                  Manchin III., Joe (WV)
                  Sinema, Kyrsten (AZ)

                  Christmas in Camp

                  Another in a series of first-hand accounts by POWs of their last moments of freedom and the personal challenges of capture and captivity. These recollections offer poignant and sometimes humorous testimony to the resolve and indomitable spirit of the men and women who fell captive to enemy forces and had to — often in the face of deplorable circumstances — fight for their country in new and unexpected ways.


                  by Earl Wasson, ex-POW, 466th Bomb Group, Barth, Germany

                  In wartime, a place called Barth was Hell. It was a prisoner-of-war camp located only a few miles south of the Baltic Sea in Northern Germany. Downed aircrews were interned there after having been shot down and captured by the enemy. Ten thousand were held there as prisoners.

                  The camp was divided into four administrative compounds with 2,500 airmen in each unit. These "guests of the Germans" were elite quality men � leaders and brave American youths. They had been effective in their aerial combat activity against Nazi Germany.

                  But now, their role had dramatically changed. Internment brought suffering beyond belief; the unending frigid weather, the unpredictable behavior of the guards. Inadequate food, lice, sickness, boredom, death by starvation or by exposure, was their unchanging agenda. Yet there were times when the spirits of the Prisoners of War were lifted. It was always through their own methods of creativity and ingenious that this happened.

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                  The increasing numbers of bombers and fighters appearing in the air overhead brought silent but exuberant joy and hope to Barth�s imprisoned. As optimism flourished small group conversation centered on the war�s end and their freedom. Liberation was on everyone�s lips. The war was indeed winding down! Talk of being home for Christmas became a Utopian Dream.

                  Although all embraced the Dream, not all were equally optimistic. This difference in opinion brought about the "Bet at Barth." A wager was on. New life came to the camp. But what was there to wager!? There was no money, no freedom of 3-day passes to London, no material possessions for the loser to forfeit, no points or promotions to be gained or lost.

                  In a heated conversation two men got carried away in their claims. An optimistic airman bet a pessimistic one on the following terms. "If we aren�t home by Christmas, I will kiss your a** before the whole group formation right after head-count on Christmas morning." They shook hands. The bet was on!

                  What the optimist hadn�t counted on was the Battle of the Bulge, which took place in early December. Consequently, the war was prolonged and they were still in Barth on Christmas Day, 1944. Christmas morning was cold, there was snow on the ground and frigid air was blowing in off the Baltic Sea. The body count for the compound began, each man was counted off. ein�, zwei�,drei�, vier�,funf�,sechs�, sieben�acht�.

                  Under ordinary circumstances, when the counting was completed and the German guards were satisfied that everyone was accounted for, the group split up and everyone went to their barracks. But this time, everybody stayed in formation. The two betting "Kriegies" walked out of the formation and went into the barracks. No one else moved! The guards were puzzled They didn�t know what was going on.

                  Soon, the two men came back out of the barracks. One was carrying a bucket of water in his hand with a towel over the other arm. The second one marched to the front of the formation, turned his back toward the assembled troops and guards, pulled down his pants and stooped over. The other took the towel, dipped it in the soapy water and washed his opposite's posterior.

                  The whole formation was standing there looking and laughing. The German guards and dignitaries of Barth looked on in amazement. They had no idea what was going on. Then the optimist bent over and kissed the pessimist on the rear! A mighty cheer went up from over 2,000 men. Then the puzzled guards joined in the fun.

                  Nothing changed on Christmas day—the same black bread and thin soup, sparse and flavorless. As evening fell, the weather worsened and the barracks grew cold as the last of the daily allotment of coal briquettes were reduced to nothing but white ash. Boredom settled in, and the prisoners anticipated another long, miserable night. Then suddenly the door opened and a voice shouted, "Curfew has been lifted for tonight! We�re having a Christmas service over in the next compound."

                  The weather was bitter cold, the new-fallen snow crunched under the feet of the men as they quickly shuffled towards their congregating comrades in the distance. The nightly curfew always kept men inside. This Christmas night�s reprieve allowed them to be outside after dark for the first time. Above, the stars were shining brightly high in the northern skies; the dim flicker of Aurora Borealis added a magical touch as the troops assembled.

                  Gratitude was felt in their hearts� a lone singer led out with one of the world�s most familiar and loved carols. Others joined in, and soon there was joyful worship ringing throughout the camp.

                  Silent night! Holy night!
                  All is calm, all is bright �

                  The German guards marching their assigned beats stopped in their tracks. They turned their heads toward the music. The words were unfamiliar but they recognized the melody—after all, 老王2.2.0 was composed by a German. They loosened up, began smiling and joined in the celebration; the praise became bilingual.

                  Round yon virgin mother and Child
                  Cinsam wacht nurdas traute hoch heilige Paar

                  Holy Infant so tender and mild
                  Holder Knabe im lockigen Hoiar

                  Sleep in heavenly peace. Sleep in heavenly peace.
                  Schlaf in himmlischer ruh! Schlaf in himmlischer ruh.

                  The Bet at Barth had paid off. Everyone had won! As the words of the carol rang in their hearts, there was a literal fulfillment. Tonight they would sleep in peace. War and internment did not have the power to destroy the meaning and beauty of this special day.

                  It was Christmas. They were not at home. But they declared, "Next year we will be! All of us!" And they were! 老王2.2.7


                  老王2.2.7 2nd Lt. Stanley M. Johnson, Port Allegany, PA

                  Loser: 2nd Lt. Richard D. Stark, Tampa, FL

                  Location: North 2 Compound of Stalag Luft I

                  posted 12/19/18

                  In Their Own Words ....
                  Another in a series of personal accounts by POWs of their last -- or first -- moments of freedom and the personal challenges of capture and captivity that fell in between. These are stories drawn from POWs' personal recollections either penned by them or shared with family and friends who then transcribed them for posterity. The voice and mood of these recollections give poignant testimony to the courage, resolve and indomitable hope of the men and women who, in war, fell captive to enemy forces and were forced — in the face of deplorable deprivations — to fight for their country in totally new and unexpected ways.
                  by Robert T. White (ret., U.S. Army)
                  In 1972 life in the camp was pretty good. I made lots of chopsticks, which were sold in the local village. My bird snares and rat trap were productive.

                  One of my guards had a battery-powered radio. It was a fairly big radio. It looked like it held 4, maybe 8, D cell batteries. He didn�t use it a lot, I think because batteries were expensive. Over the years I got to listen to a few English broadcasts of Radio Hanoi.

                  Since no one knew English it was hard for them to know the origin of the broadcast. So, I did get snippets of Armed Forces Radio. I remember hearing one DJ—I don�t remember his name. I think he was from Cincinnati.

                  古伋言情小说,好看的古伋言情小说 - 奇书网:2021-1-13 · · 晋江VP2021-1-11完结总书评数:327 当前被收藏数:1337花畔自小被幽冥之主临渊养大,灵力无边,是冥界赫赫有名的一霸。自幽冥之主魂飞魄散后,众鬼想欺凌花畔,却个个被打的鼻青脸肿。


                  My ordeal had begun on 15 November 1969 as I was flying an Army OV1A Mohawk out of Vung Tau, South Vietnam. The aircraft got hit by ground fire and caught fire. After ejecting, I landed on the beach of the South China Sea. Capture was immediate. The aircraft ended up in the ocean, still burning.

                  The next two years had been a bad time. I got very sick. My weight dropped to about 120 pounds. I was kept in a 4 x 6 foot cage. There was a pallet inside to keep me off the mud. At high tide the pallet was inches above the water. I was only able to sit in that cage. It was not tall enough to stand. I wore a leg iron at night. I got 2 bowls of rice a day. I spent 23 1/ 2 hours a day for 2 years in those conditions.

                  After the Paris Peace Accords signing, my captors were in a good mood. I think they were looking forward to life without me. And, maybe, they were happy for me as well. We were all counting down the 60 days. We had no verbal communication, but about 50 days after the signing, I could tell they were wondering why they still had a prisoner.

                  We were hearing about other releases. I remained stoic throughout, but I was getting nervous. On the 60th day, I�m still there, and my captors are noticeably agitated. I�m guessing they sent a courier to HQ to ask why I�m still there.

                  We�ll never know, but I think HQ either thought I was dead or just forgot about me.

                  Strattton in prison garb

                  Author, center rear, with luggage and Viet Cong military escort.
                  Living Conditions: North Vs. South
                  Of 687 POWs returned from Vietnam, 68% had been captured in North Vietnam and were held by the North Vietnamese Army. Almost all were pilots. The 24% captured in South Vietnam, a mixture of officers and enlisted men, were held by the National Liberation Front (Viet Cong). (The remainder were captured in Laos, Cambodia, and China.) The camps where Captain White was held, such as they were, tended to be dispersed and isolated. After his first couple of months, he saw no Americans and spoke no English for over three years. He was not tortured and his relationship with his guards while impersonal was not hostile. In his first two camps he occupied a cage, 3 ft. by 6 ft. and 4 1/2 ft. tall. He wore a leg iron and was fed two bowls of rice a day. In his third camp, he had no cage and slept on a pallet that he was allowed to build for himself. He was allowed to set bird snares, and he also caught rats, which he cooked for his guard and himself. This last camp also held Vietnamese prisoners, who did not even know of the existence of the American prisoner.

                  See Treatment of American Prisoners of War In Southeast Asia 1961-1973 By John N. Powers. Also Checking in to the "Hanoi Hilton," both on this site.

                  Prior to departure:
                  Capt. Robert T. White enjoys an (unaccustomed) cold gass of beer under a hot Vietnamese sun on his—or anyone one else's—last day as a POW, in the village of Xom Tieu, early spring 1973.

                  A new day was was born on 1 April 1973. No joke, it was April Fool�s day. Things were looking good. We ate cold rice. My stoic expression didn�t change, but inside I was beginning to feel like this was going to be a really good day. We walked. We stopped in a sugar cane field, broke off a stalk, and enjoyed the sweetness.

                  Next stop was a small village. I was told later that the village was named Xom Tieu. It was about 2 km from where I was shot down. We went inside a hooch and waited. This was probably around 1000 hours. We sat.

                  The people in the hooch had never seen me before, and probably never heard of me. My existence was supposed to be a secret. Their curiosity was obvious, but there was no conversation. I knew very little of their language, and they knew none of mine. So, we sat and smiled politely. I was given a bouquet of plastic flowers.

                  After a very short march we arrived at the release site. It was a good sized area large enough to land 3 Hueys. The area was surrounded by North Vietnamese flags. Several hundred civilians, all in a good mood were there. It was almost festive. A parachute canopy had been pitched as a tent to provide shade for the negotiating parties. I think it was my parachute.


                  Packed and ready to go.

                  Tables and chairs were provided so the proper documents could be signed and witnessed. An international commission was present to oversee the proceedings. The commission was made up of Poles, Hungarians, Canadians, and Indonesians. I recognized some familiar uniforms, US Air Force and US Army.

                  We climbed on one of the Hueys and took off. The Huey was distinctively marked with orange bands to identify it as a friendly aircraft. The pilots were South Vietnamese. It didn�t take long to get to Saigon and Tan Son Nhut Air Base. On the ramp was an Air Force C-9. Its engine was running, and it was ready for take-off.

                  老王vp 下载

                  Capt. White's transport huey marked with orange bands to designate a friendly aircraft

                  The next stop was Clark Air Base in the Philippines. There was a nice crowd waiting to greet the aircraft: maybe 50 people. A microphone was set up and I made some brief remarks. This was the first time I�d spoken to a crowd in a long time, but not the last. A bus took me to the hospital.

                  Once inside the hospital I was treated like royalty. A whole floor had been set aside for returning POWs. I was the only one there. I guess that�s fitting since I spent my captivity alone. All the others had got home. I received a physical exam. I was measured for another suit of clothes -- this one an Army uniform. Once I had the uniform, it was time for a BX run. I had an entourage. My doctor and assistance officer, a photographer and I all went shopping. Next, we visited a school.

                  I spent three days at Clark. I had good food and good treatment. But it was time to go. My new transportation was a C-141. It was about midnight on 4 April 1973 when we touched down at Hickam in Honolulu. Another amazing crowd was on hand. I was told 500 people. There was a red carpet and lots of American flags. Inside the terminal I was greeted by several flag rank officers.

                  With a full tank of fuel we left for the Mainland. Nearing the coast of California I was invited up to the flight deck. Sitting in the jump seat with a headset on I heard San Francisco approach control clear us to 5,000 feet. A new clearance was issued about 5 miles out. We were cleared to take up the heading and altitude of our choice. At 2,500 feet we crossed over the Golden Gate Bridge. We climbed back to altitude and continued to New Jersey.

                  Operation Homecoming was complete.

                  posted 9/25/18

                  The Directors, Officers and members of the American Ex-Prisoners of War are saddened by the death of our National Commander Charles Susino, Jr. on Thursday, July 12, 2018 at his home in New Jersey. As always, he was surrounded by his family and their love.

                  There will be a very simple one day service on Wednesday, July 18th, 2-6 pm at the Wright and Ford funeral home in Flemington, NJ. At a later date, he will be buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

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                  For those wishing to reach out to his family, please address cards to his son, Charles Anthony Susino, who will share them with his mother, Lillian, and his family.

                  Charles Anthony Susino
                  951 Gates Avenue
                  Piscataway, NJ 08854

                  Andersonville Civil War Prison


                  From February 1864 until the end of the Civil War (1861-65) in April 1865, Andersonville, Georgia, was the site of a notorious Confederate military prison. Officially called Camp Sumter, it was the South�s largest internment center for captured Union soldiers and was infamous for its unhealthy conditions and high death rate.

                  Overall, 30,000 Union and 26,000 Confederate soldiers died in captivity. At Andersonville alone, nearly 13,000 men died over 14 months—an average of more than 30 a day in that span. Following the war its commander, Captain Henry Wirz (1823-65), was tried, convicted and executed for war crimes.

                  In November of 1863, Confederate Captain W. Sidney Winder was sent to the village of Andersonville in Sumter County, Georgia, to assess the potential of building a prison for captured Union soldiers. The deep south location, the availability of fresh water, and its proximity to the Southwestern Railroad, made Andersonville a favorable prison location.

                  In addition, Andersonville had a population of less than 20 persons, and was, therefore, politically unable to resist the building of such an unpopular facility. So Andersonville was chosen as the site for a prison that would later become infamous in the North for the thousands of prisoners that would die there before the war ended.

                  After the prison site was selected, Captain Richard B. Winder was sent to Andersonville to construct a prison. Arriving in late December of 1863, Captain Winder adopted a prison design that encompassed roughly 16.5 acres which he felt was large enough to hold 10,000 prisoners. The prison was to be rectangular in shape with a small creek flowing roughly through the center of the compound. The prison was given the name Camp Sumter.

                  In January of 1864, slaves from local farms were impressed to fell trees and dig ditches for construction of the prison stockade. The stockade enclosure was approximately 1010 feet long and 780 feet wide. The walls of the stockade were constructed of pine logs cut on site, hewn square, and set vertically in a wall trench dug roughly five feet deep. According to historical accounts, the poles were hewn to a thickness of eight to 12 inches and "matched so well on the inner line of the palisades as to give no glimpse of the outer world."

                  Thomas Nast, German-born American caricaturist considered the "Father of the American Cartoon," created both the Republican Elephant and the Democratic Donkey, not to mention the modern illustrative version of Santa Claus. He also weighed in frequently on the Civil War. President Abraham Lincoln once referred to Nast as "our best recruiting sergeant." This postcard drawing, "Union soldiers in Andersonville prison / The rebel leader, Jeff Davis, at Fortress Monroe," was produced by King & Baird, Printers, Philadelphia, in 1865.

                  A light fence known as the deadline was erected approximately 19-25 feet inside the stockade wall to demarcate a no-man�s land keeping the prisoners away from the stockade wall. Anyone crossing this line was immediately shot by sentries posted at intervals around the stockade wall.

                  book cover, Haunted by Atrocity: Civil War Prisons in American Memory
                  Cover of Haunted by Atrocity: Civil War Prisons in American Memory. Some 56,000 Union and Confederate soldiers died in military prison camps during the Civil War. The book offers a cautionary tale of how Americans have unconsciously constructed recollections of painful events in ways that protect cherished ideals of myth, meaning, identity, and, ultimately, a deeply rooted faith in American exceptionalism. Tthe author, Benjamin G. Cloyd, teaches history at Hinds Community College in Raymond, Mississippi. Published in 2011, Available in bookstores and online.

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                  Prisoners began arriving at the prison in late February of 1864 while it was still under construction. By early June the prison population had climbed to 20,000.

                  Consequently, it was decided that a larger prison was necessary, and by mid-June work was begun to enlarge the facility. The prison�s walls were extended 610 feet to the north, encompassing an area of roughly 10 acres, bringing the total prison area to 26.5 acres.

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                  Due to the threat of Union raids (Sherman�s troops were marching on Atlanta), General Winder ordered the building of defensive earthworks and a middle and outer stockade around the prison. Construction of the earthworks began July 20th. These earthworks consisted of Star Fort located southwest of the prison, a redoubt located northwest of the north gate, and six redans.

                  The homes of Andersonville, 1890. [Photograph] Retrieved from the Library of Congress

                  The middle and outer stockades were hastily constructed of unhewn pine logs set vertically in wall trenches that were about four feet deep. The middle stockade posts projected roughly 12 feet above the ground surface and encircled the inner prison stockade as well as the corner redans. The outer stockade, which was never completed, was meant to encompass the entire complex of earthworks and stockades. The posts of the outer stockade extended about five feet above the ground surface.

                  By early September, Sherman�s troops had occupied Atlanta and the threat of Union raids on Andersonville prompted the transfer of most of the Union prisoners to other camps in Georgia and South Carolina. By mid-November, all but about 1500 prisoners had been shipped out of Andersonville, and only a few guards remained to police them. Transfers to Andersonville in late December increased the numbers of prisoners once again, but even then the prison population totaled only about 5000 persons.

                  The number of prisoners at the prison would remain this low until the war ended in April of 1865. During the 15 months during which Andersonville was operated, almost 13,000 Union prisoners died there of malnutrition, exposure, and disease; Andersonville became synonymous with the atrocities which both North and South soldiers experienced as prisoners of war.

                  古伋言情小说,好看的古伋言情小说 - 奇书网:2021-1-13 · · 晋江VP2021-1-11完结总书评数:327 当前被收藏数:1337花畔自小被幽冥之主临渊养大,灵力无边,是冥界赫赫有名的一霸。自幽冥之主魂飞魄散后,众鬼想欺凌花畔,却个个被打的鼻青脸肿。

                  On April 9, 1865, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his forces to Ulysses S. Grant, Commanding General of the Union Army, at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, an act that effectively ended the Civil War. The following month, Henry Wirz, Andersonville's commander was arrested for the murder of soldiers incarcerated at the prison during the war.

                  Captain Wirz had overseen an operation in which thousands of inmates died. His trial lasted two months. More than 100 witnesses were called to testify. But he was, historians agree, in part a scapegoat. Throughout his tenure, he was given few resources to work with, and as the Confederacy faltered, its soldiers starving and dying from injury and disease, food and medicine for Wirtz's prisoners grew almost impossible to come by.

                  He was executed by hanging in Washington, D.C., on November 10, 1865, Wirz reportedly said to the officer in charge, "I know what orders are, Major. I am being hanged for obeying them." The 41-year-old Wirz was one of the few people convicted and executed for crimes committed during the Civil War.

                  book cover<em>,Execution of Captain Henry Wirtz</em>
                  Execution of Captain Henry Wirtz, the keeper of Andersonville Prison. Adjustments are being made to the noose on Nov. 10, 1865. (Alexander Gardner/Library of Congress)
                  Andersonville Prison food line, August 17, 1864
                  古伋言情小说,好看的古伋言情小说 - 奇书网:2021-1-13 · · 晋江VP2021-1-11完结总书评数:327 当前被收藏数:1337花畔自小被幽冥之主临渊养大,灵力无边,是冥界赫赫有名的一霸。自幽冥之主魂飞魄散后,众鬼想欺凌花畔,却个个被打的鼻青脸肿。

                  posted 7/13/18

                  The Angels of Bataan and Corregidor

                  After two and a half years of captivity, nurses known as the Angels of Bataan and Corregidor leave Manila in February 1945.
                  February 1945: liberated from Santo Tomas Internment Camp after two and a half years of captivity, nurses known as the Angels of Bataan and Corregidor load up to leave Manila.

                  古伋言情小说,好看的古伋言情小说 - 奇书网:2021-1-13 · · 晋江VP2021-1-11完结总书评数:327 当前被收藏数:1337花畔自小被幽冥之主临渊养大,灵力无边,是冥界赫赫有名的一霸。自幽冥之主魂飞魄散后,众鬼想欺凌花畔,却个个被打的鼻青脸肿。

                  When Corregidor surrendered on May 6, 1942, the men captured, including military and civilians, were marched through the streets of Manila to Bilibid, the old Spanish prison which the American Federal Bureau of Prisons had declared unsuitable and had started to tear down before the war.

                  From there they were transferred to Camp O�Donnell, Cabanatuan, and eventually back to Bilibid for transport on the Hell Ships to the slave labor camps in Japan, Korea, and Manchuria. But what to do with the women nurses was a dilemma for the Japanese, and they chose to imprison them with the civilians in Santo Tomas Internment Camp.

                  On July 2, 1942, the 68 captured Army nurses arrived at Santo Tomas from Corregidor and were temporarily isolated in the dormitory of the Santa Catalina Hospital across the street from the main campus. Shortly afterwards, the Japanese Commandant approved the rental of Santa Catalina as a hospital for the camp.

                  Joining the 12 Navy nurses who had been interned in Santo Tomas since March 8, the Army nurses were assigned to staff the Santa Catalina hospital as well as the isolation hospital inside the camp and assist at various clinics. In May of 1943, the Navy nurses all transferred to join in organizing the Los Banos Camp.

                  For the first two years, the medical staff within the camp included doctors and nurses from outside the camp, and with the ability to transfer patients to Manila General Hospital and other hospitals outside the camp, the medical staff was able to work effectively, though with a chronic shortage of medications.

                  In early 1944, the Japanese forbade any outside doctors or nurses to enter the camp. This put a strain on the camp doctors and nurses, which was further exacerbated by a lack critical medication and surgical supplies. This would have been a greater crisis if not for the presence of the Army nurses, who had to take on the added burden of the outside nurses who were no longer permitted into the camp.

                  On February 3, 1945, the night of liberation, the flying column arrived with some casualties incurred on their way into Santo Tomas and during the firefight that ensued when the Japanese took hostages in the Education Building. The Army nurses assisted the Army doctors and corpsmen in operating on these troopers and providing other medical assistance.

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                  On February 9, 100 new Army Nurses flew in from Leyte to relieve them. The ones who had been in Santo Tomas remained on duty with the new nurses to help orient them.

                  Then on February 12, while the Battle of Manila was raging just a little over a mile away, they boarded an Army truck and were taken to a temporary airstrip for their flight to Leyte. The group of 71 included 67 nurses, the physical therapist, the dietician, and the Red Cross representative, plus the Lt. Col. in charge of the nurses.

                  Many internees were there to see their departure from camp and to cheer them and wish them luck. They boarded a C-46, which developed engine trouble and landed on Mindoro. There they changed to two planes, which landed at the Tacloban Air Strip, where they were taken to a convalescent hospital.

                  Some of the nurses were hospitalized due to malnutrition and fatigue, but the rest stayed at the convalescent hospital located on a wide, spacious beach. There they were issued the latest nurses uniforms, which were quite different from what they had before, which delighted them.

                  They had been wearing the same shirts and skirts that had been made by the Quartermaster on Corregidor, supplemented by a few items they had picked up during internment.


                  The Angels were liberated from Santo Tomas, along with 3,700 men, women and children civilians, by the First Cavalry Divison. Brig. Gen. Denit, Chief Surgeon, Southwest Pacific Area, awarded the Bronze Star Medal and one grade promotion to each nurse on the beach at Leyte Just before their departure for the U.S. on two deluxe C-54s.

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                  But the nation still remembers the angels as they were and the way they distinguished themselves in their service even when they were prisoners of the Japanese.

                  Reprinted from "Beyond the Wire," May 2018 Angus Lorenzen, Commander

                  posted 5/15/18
                  Angels of Bataan and Corregidor group photo.

                  In Their Own Words ....
                  Another in a series of personal accounts by POWs of their last moments of freedom and the personal challenges of capture and captivity. These are stories drawn from biographies POWs either penned themselves or shared orally with family and friends who transcribed them for posterity. The voice and mood of these recollections understandably span a broad range of emotions. But each gives poignant testimony to the courage, resolve and indomitable hope of the men and women who, in war, fell captive to enemy forces and were forced — in the face of deplorable deprivations — to fight for their country in totally new and unexpected ways.
                  Checking in to the "Hanoi Hilton"
                  Captain Richard "Beak" Stratton (USN) shot down over North Vietnam in 1967, was an unwilling "guest" at Hanoi's prison Maison Centrale for six years. Built by the French in the nineteenth century, when Vietnam was a French colony, to hold political prisoners, it later interned American POWs who rechristened it, with understandable derisiveness, "The Hanoi Hilton." At its peak, it accommodated up to 2,000 in a space intended for 600 prisoners. Between 200 to 300 were captured American pilots there for interrogation and torture.

                  In the fall of 2017 two events caught my eye: a news item in the Manchester Guardian and a PBS program announcement.

                  The Guardian reported that more than 30 of Saudi Arabia�s most senior and elite figures, among them blood relatives of senior rulers, were locked inside the five-star Riyadh Ritz-Carlton hotel, accused of corruption." This news gave me one of those Yogi Berra moments: "It's d�j� vu all over again." For it was 50 years since I had been checked into Hanoi�s Maison Centrale for a six year�s stay as a Yankee Air Pirate, Blackest of All the Criminals in the DRV. And any time PBS claims to be executing a "documentary" it is guaranteed to be a screed slanted against our country.

                  In 1965 one of the earliest North Vietnam shoot-downs (Bob Shumaker?) made the facetious and infelicitous designation of the Maison Centrale as "The Hanoi Hilton." To the citizenry of Hanoi it was the Hoa Lo Prison; ostensibly so-called for being located where pottery furnaces used to be. However it was really so tagged by the slang usage of Hoa Lo as "fiery furnace" referring to the prison�s reputation for miserable treatment of those incarcerated therein for over the past 100 years.

                  At the time I arrived (1/ 6/1967), as I found out later, it housed in addition to administrative personnel and their families, US & RVN prisoners, female civilians, crooks, street people and political prisoners. As far as Maison Centrale went, a Hilton Hotel it was not; five stars were not even in the firmament.

                  Striped PJs: POWs called them "Mess Dress"

                  Every wound on my body was the direct result of the Check-In process. There were puncture wounds on the back of my wrists that went to the bone, inflicted by the primitive gear and screw handcuffs they used to immobilize my hands.

                  Where the ropes were tied across my elbows my left arm was cut to the muscle and the right elbow to the bone as a result of the sawing motion they used to apply force the various parts of the body.

                  I have those scars with me even to this day. The shackles and bar arrangement they used to immobilize my legs tore away the skin to bone at both ankles. No one of these injuries in themselves or in combination was life threatening until all six became infected.

                  At that point my survival was in the hands of God.

                  To counter the results of the trauma I decided to check out of my accommodations. Physical escape was not in the cards. However I was able to disassociate.

                  It took a while to develop this talent. I started by talking to various parts of my body commiserating with them. I scolded the pain saying that we were well aware that something was out of whack and we needed no more prompts.

                  My favorite perch was up on the ceiling where I could look down on myself and observe what was going on with me or, if in the Knobby Room, what was being done to me. I became a master of critical evaluation regarding my interrogators' and torturers' techniques.

                  1967 Maison Centrale, Hanoi Vietnam
                  1967, Maison Centrale, aerial view
                  In 1970 a basket of deplorables (Communist Designation) were settling into Cell Seven as part of a massive relocation of prisoners in North Vietnam.

                  (After the Son Tay Rescue Raid the Communists decided to ship the younger studs up to the Chinese boarder and place us old fuds downtown Hanoi, on ground zero, in case of massive raids and an invasion. American POWs had by then attained a measure of value as hostages.)

                  An Air Force Ace, Jim Kassler (RIP) was at one point regaling me with war stories from Korea and Vietnam. He recounted how just before his shoot-down his crew chief had remarked, while strapping him in to his aircraft: "Don�t worry if you get shot down, sir. I understand that they are putting you up in the Hanoi Hilton until the end of the war."

                  Jim allowed as how we might have trouble with that Hotel designation in our dotage. That day in 2017 I feared future generations might consider us to be in the same circumstances as the Saudi Princes currently found themselves — all of us allegedly having been ensconced in the 5-star accommodations of a prestigious hotel chain.

                  Jim predicted revisionist pundits posing as professors, if they should teach about the Vietnam War at all, would manage to remove the quotation marks around "Hanoi Hilton" when referring to the POW main prison location.

                  Cell Interior Hoa Lo Prison

                  In PBS's ersatz 18-hour "documentary" The Vietnam War, Burns and Novick totally distort the Vietnam experience by coating grains or truth with truckloads of misstatements and innuendo. My granddaughters attending colleges and watching TV today are being indoctrinated, not educated.

                  古伋言情小说,好看的古伋言情小说 - 奇书网:2021-1-13 · · 晋江VP2021-1-11完结总书评数:327 当前被收藏数:1337花畔自小被幽冥之主临渊养大,灵力无边,是冥界赫赫有名的一霸。自幽冥之主魂飞魄散后,众鬼想欺凌花畔,却个个被打的鼻青脸肿。

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                  I had my own private toilet — a rusted bucket with a lid. There were two cement bed pads built against the wall with leg stocks at the end of each. It appeared to be a space about 6 feet wide, 8 feet long and 14 feet high. There was a bared and boarded window high up on the outside wall and a strong door with a Judas hole on the passageway side. I had two meals a day with random hits on the head and interrogations at unpredictable times through any 24-hour period.

                  女孩小说、好看的女孩小说、好看的女孩小说推荐、超好看的 ...:2021-6-7 · 经典的,超好看的女孩小说推荐,高分女孩小说,女孩小说,女孩小说下载、女孩电子书下载、女孩全本txt小说电子书下载 言情小说] 晋江2021-05-20完结文案:在我还来不及学会爱的时候,不小心就已经爱深了;在你还不懂得爱的时候,不小心叫我被爱灼伤了。曾经那个把爱捧于手奉于心想献给你的女

                  There was no medical care. Once they determined that I was going to live they issued me some go-aheads made of rubber tires for soles and inner tubes for an arch strap, T shirt, skive shorts (boxer), mess dress uniform (striped PJs), a hand towel, a see-thru blanket and a straw matt. I was a thing of sartorial splendor.

                  Interestingly enough, I had no injuries resulting from the blowing up of — and my simultaneous ejection from — the A4E Skyhawk. There were no injuries resulting from the parachute landing or the succession of beatings administered by the rather irate peasants that captured me.

                  I was unmerciful in critiquing my performance and reaction to the VC — learning from every mistake and becoming aware of every cue as to their upcoming behavior. It was a grand show! I proved to myself while they might be able to control my body they had nothing to say about my mind. They could bend my will but they could not break me. They being the disease, the germs, the pain or the Communists. I could check out any time I wanted to and they wouldn�t even know that I was gone.

                  If you arrived in Hoa Lo with injuries that they exacerbated as part of their torture regime as they did with Jim Kassler and others, torture was an unmitigated evil. Otherwise, if they tortured you, you either lived or you died.

                  Their intent was not to kill you by torture but to exploit you. So voluntary death was not an option that was on the table. As a result you learned how far you could resist on any one day and took the process to that limit. The concept was to bend to just before they broke you and you did something incredibly stupid to hurt your shipmates or your country. You learned that they also had limitations.

                  Authority for torture came from the highest levels and the individual interrogator may or may not have that authority on any one day. They also were working with time constraints and maybe you could outlast them. And sometime, you could make it just too much work for them, given whatever result they were looking for on that day. It was a crap shoot.

                  Eventually I was moved around to other prisons in the Hanoi area: the Zoo, the Plantation, Hoa Lo Little Vegas, and Hoa Lo Unity. At each step the accommodations improved: another cell mate, 3 cell mates, 30 cell mates, 40 cell mates. Torture, as a routine event, stopped around 1969; my last beating was in 1970. I was released in 1973. Food and water became adequate to sustain life. Sporadic mail (6-line forms) exchange was negotiated by Mr. Kissinger.

                  In the fullness of time I won, as had Jim Kassler.

                  After about a year we were of no use to them. They could get no real propaganda value out of Jim the captured"Ace" nor of me"The Mad Bomber of Hanoi." Their efforts to exploit us actually may have done us some good in that they had to produce us or at least account for us at the end of the war.

                  What is the purpose of this discussion? Certainly my wounds were insignificant compared to the horrific combat wounds experienced by the ground troops.

                  Cell in Camp Unity section of Hoa Ho
                  Cell in "Camp Unity section of Hoa Ho

                  Our living conditions were far superior to those experienced by those captured and held in South Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. I did get to live in the shadow of great Americans: future VP and Presidential candidates, ambassadors, senators, congressmen, politicians, flag & general officers, artists, teachers and captains of industry. I was blessed.

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                  American POWs were held in the Maison Centrale on 1 Pho Hoa Lo, Hanoi, Vietnam. This jail was sort of a cross between Rikers Island, NYC and Sing Sing in Ossining, NY. The remains of the Maison Centrale are now a museum.

                  Once again, Yogi said it best:"I'm lucky. Usually you're dead to get your own museum, but I'm still alive to see mine."

                  (Thanks to Mike McGrath for the line drawings.)

                  Capt. Richard AllenRichard "Beak" Stratton Stratton (USN ret) flew 22 combat missions and earned two Air Medals and the Combat Action Ribbon during his service in the Vietnam War. He was attached to the USS Ticonderoga Air Wing 19/Attack Squadron VA-192 as a Lieutenant Commander from 1966-67. While a prisoner of war from 1966 -73 he earned the Silver Star for valor and leadership during his 2,251 days of captivity. From 1989 to 1995 Stratton served as Chairman, Department of Veterans Affairs Advisory Committee on Prisoners of War.


                  Statement of Charles A. Susino, National Director of the American Ex-Prisoners of War, before the Committees on Veterans' Affairs, U.S. Senate/U.S. House Of Representatives, Washington, D.C., March 6, 2018.
                  AXPOW National Director Charles A. Susino.
                  Chairmen and members of the House and Senate Veteran's Affairs committee and guests, my name is Charles A. Susino, National Director of the American Ex-Prisoners of War. I am speaking today on behalf of my father, National Commander Charles Susino, Jr. Many of you know him from his previous testimony over the years. My dad joins me in thanking you for the opportunity to express our comments today.

                  We are grateful for your efforts over this past year. This Congress has stepped up and passed several key pieces of legislation in support of our veterans with respect to health care, compensation, and public awareness in the case of approving a location for the Operation Desert Storm memorial. Your time is scarce and other major Congressional agendas often displace the attention on veterans' needs so we ask for your patience, persistence, and unwavering support.

                  Several pieces of new legislation are important and continually improving all facets of the Veterans Administration operation is necessary. We often speak at this hearing about how the VA needs to improve and model its methods about particular successful and efficient industries. We need to get to where we use the term operational excellence and VA in the same sentence. For an organization that large it takes time, but we need to focus on select areas to build some successes to point at.

                  Our legislative agenda has been very consistent year to year. It is based on the earned benefits of the veteran for serving their country, never using the word"entitlements" in the same sentence as veteran. Its center is healthcare and fair compensation to the veteran and their family.

                  Studies of society conclude the country�s population is getting older. That is also true of the veterans as well, especially those that served in WWII, Korea, and Vietnam. The typical WWII veteran is in their 90�s along with their spouse and as people are living longer so does our veteran and this creates some unique challenges for the VA. In our organization, we have members in that age group. I am always surprised how little is actually provided for the elderly veterans who are sickly, even those with 100% rating disability.

                  女孩小说、好看的女孩小说、好看的女孩小说推荐、超好看的 ...:2021-6-7 · 经典的,超好看的女孩小说推荐,高分女孩小说,女孩小说,女孩小说下载、女孩电子书下载、女孩全本txt小说电子书下载 言情小说] 晋江2021-05-20完结文案:在我还来不及学会爱的时候,不小心就已经爱深了;在你还不懂得爱的时候,不小心叫我被爱灼伤了。曾经那个把爱捧于手奉于心想献给你的女

                  We also draw your attention to several bills which we believe have special merit and request your active support.

                  老王vp2022 Ensuring VA Employee Accountability Act. All veterans in all VA facilities deserve adequate care from VA employees.

                  H.R. 4369: To amend title 38, United States Code, to codify the authority of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs to assign a disability rating of total to a veteran by reason of unemployability, and for other purposes

                  H.R. 299 and S. 422 : To amend title 38, United States Code, to clarify presumptions relating to the exposure of certain veterans who served in the vicinity of the Republic of Vietnam, and for other purposes. H.R. 303 and S.66: To amend title 10, United States Code, to permit additional retired members of the Armed Forces who have a service-connected disability to receive both disability compensation from the Department of Veterans Affairs for their disability and either retired pay by reason of their years of military service or combat-related special compensation.

                  S. 339: A bill to amend title 10, United States Code, to repeal the requirement for reduction of survivor annuities under the Survivor Benefit Plan by veterans� dependency and indemnity compensation, and for other purposes.

                  HR 1472 and S. 591: Military and Veteran Caregiver Services Improvement Act of 2017 S. 1990: Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Improvement Act of 2017 S. 544: A bill to amend the Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 to modify the termination date for the Veterans Choice Program, and for other purposes.

                  Thank you for your time and attention and most importantly your unwavering support of ex-POWs and all veterans — deserving heroes every one.
                  God bless our troops
                  God bless America

                  Charles A. Susino
                  National Director
                  American Ex-Prisoners of War

                  March 6, 2018
                  Joint Hearing: Legislative Presentation of the American Ex-Prisoners of War before the House/Senate Veterans Affairs Committees

                  USS Canopus, Star of the Sea
                  Battle ribbons awarded U.S.S Canopus
                  Canopus Awards, Citations and Campaign Ribbons
                  Top Row - Combat Action Ribbon (retroactive - Bataan) - Yangtze Service Medal
                  Second Row - China Service Medal - American Defense Medal (with Fleet clasp) - Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal (1)
                  Third Row - World War II Victory Medal - Philippines Presidential Unit Citation - Philippine Defense Medal
                  "Submarines are perceived, in popular romantic conceit, as solitary predators that prowl the seas unbounded by time and geography.

                  In fact they often run in packs, and more often than not those packs are highly dependent on a den mother. No matter where or how far they roam, especially in wartime, subs don't stray too far from the "Mother Ship" and never for too long.

                  They return for all the reasons anyone goes home to mom: for succor, nourishment, replenishment and, often enough, repair.

                  Regardless of the trouble a sub got into or whatever damage it sustained, the mother's job was to make everything all right again, sometimes with remedies bordering on magical. In addition to stores of supplies and munitions, these service ships carried large inventories of parts and materials, and could fix anything. What they didn't have in stock they could make in one of several on-board machine shops.

                  The USS Canopus was one of those ships, in Navy argot a "Sub Tender."

                  She was named for the brightest star in the southern constellation of Carina and the second-brightest star in the nighttime sky. The name itself comes from the mythical figure Canopus, navigator for Menelaus, king of Sparta.

                  She didn't start out as a sub tender. She didn't even start out as Canopus. And she was already long in the tooth when she took her star turn in the Bay of Manila in the early, harrowing days of World War II.

                  She was launched as a passenger liner, the 老王vp 下载, in 1919 by the New York Shipbuilding Company for W. R. Grace and Co. But her future never lay with the leisure class.

                  She was taken over by the Navy shortly after completion in July 1919 and placed in commission as 老王v2.2.8. She was a trans-Atlantic troop transport briefly but then was transferred over to the Army in September 1919.

                  "Another fire party carried hoses through choking smoke in the compartments near the magazines, pulling the wounded away from blasted areas.

                  A Shipfitter donned the one breathing apparatus outfit undamaged by the bomb's detonation and carried a fire hose down to the magazines, backed by shipmates working in relays, each of which stayed as long as men could stand the fumes.

                  "The ship's Chaplain led a rescue group into the engine room, where fragments and escaping steam had caused the most casualties, administering the last rites to dying men and helping to evacuate the injured.

                  Canopus with Sub Division 17 alongside.
                  USS Canopus (AS-9) in Apra Harbor, Guam, with Submarine Division 17 alongside, October 29, 1924 (US Navy photo).

                  "The Chief Machinist Mate shut off the steam at the boilers, saving men from being scalded to death, and then helped the wounded to safety. He was later found wandering around the ship in a daze, with no recollection of what happened after the blast."

                  It took four hours to get all the fires out. In a tour of the magazines several crushed and exploded powder charges were found: unsettling testimony to how close to complete destruction the ship, and all on board, had come.

                  "Only a miracle prevented a general magazine explosion," Capt. Sackett wrote, "but miracles do happen. Bomb fragments had severed several pipes near the magazines, which released floods of steam and water that kept fire away from the rest of the powder."

                  The Canopus was seaworthy again in just a few days, although a good deal of ammunition had been lost when the magazines were flooded, and several store rooms were severely damaged by the explosions.

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                  Canopus was then reacquired by the Navy in 1921 and converted, in Boston, to a submarine tender, a role the fates had seemingly singled her out for. Only not in Boston.

                  She was outfitted with machine shops, foundries, storerooms, cabins and living spaces for her crews and, in the words of her skipper, "a few guns as a concession to the fact that she was now a man-of-war": The 老王vp2022.

                  Canopus by the Numbers:
                  Displacement 5,975 tons
                  Length 373ft, 8 in.
                  Beam 51 ft., 6 in.
                  Draft 老王vp2022
                  Speed (rated) 老王vp2022
                  Compliment 314

                  Canopus reported to Submarine Force, Atlantic Fleet, and remained at Boston for several years. She sailed for duty with the Asiatic Fleet in September 1924.

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                  On December 7, 1941, Canopus, then tender to Submarine Squadron 20, lay at Cavite Navy Yard finishing up an extensive overhaul. (Cavite was the US Navy's only ship repair facility in the western Pacific before World War II.) Anti-aircraft machine guns had been added to her armament, and light armor had been fitted around exposed positions, which would shortly prove useful in warding off bomb fragments.

                  Nine hours after their sneak attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese forces began a steady aerial assault on the Philippines. At dawn the next day, the Canopus was ordered alongside the docks in Manila's chief port.

                  If she should be sunk there the water would be shallow enough that the ship would rest mostly above water. Stores, torpedoes, and equipment could be salvaged. In the days that followed, Canopus and crew worked around the clock repairing ships damaged in the daily air raids. This in addition to tending to their brood of submarines at sea.

                  The Japanese invasion force attacking the Philippines was actually outnumbered 3 to 2, but they were crack troops, Japan's best trained and most seasoned. Plus, they had the support of a fully functioning navy and air force which, after attacks on Pearl and Clark and Nichols airfields in the Philippines, the Allies did not.

                  The ship's commanding officer, Capt. E.L. Sackett, authored an account of Canopus's Philippines exploits to be distributed to relatives of the ship's officers and men. In it he described the steps the crew took to improve their chances of survival against the relentless Japanese bombing sorties against the port.

                  "The superstructure of the 老王2.2.0 was painted to match the color of the docks alongside, and camouflage nets were spread overhead in an effort to deceive the Japs as long as possible as to our identity. The more exposed fuel tanks were emptied and filled with water to reduce the danger of a disastrous fire which might make it impossible to save the ship if the oil were touched off by a bomb."

                  With little alternative other than a rearguard action, General Douglas MacArthur, consolidated all of his Luzon-based units on the Bataan Peninsula. On Christmas Day, 老王2.2.0 sailed southwest to the relative safety of Mariveles Bay at the tip of Bataan island, close to the Allied guns of Corregidor.

                  Nonetheless, it was there on December 29, 1941 that Canopus suffered her first direct bomb hit, a 500-pound armor-piercing ordnance that penetrated all her decks, exploding on the propeller shaft housing amd killing six sailors.

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                  古伋言情小说,好看的古伋言情小说 - 奇书网:2021-1-13 · · 晋江VP2021-1-11完结总书评数:327 当前被收藏数:1337花畔自小被幽冥之主临渊养大,灵力无边,是冥界赫赫有名的一霸。自幽冥之主魂飞魄散后,众鬼想欺凌花畔,却个个被打的鼻青脸肿。

                  "A Gunner's Mate climbed down a smoke-filled ammunition trunk with a hose in an effort to get at the blaze from below. When the fire pumps failed, bucket brigades carried on the battle."

                  Her submarines had by then slipped away from Bataan along with any remaining large fighting vessels, but the Canopus found plenty of local orphans to administer to. Small Navy ships needed constant repairs as well as both new and fabricated parts. Word got around to nearby Army and Air Force units, as well, that the Canopus's well-equipped shops could accomplish miracles of improvisation.

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                  The Canopus received a second direct bomb hit on January 1, 1942 . This time a fragmentation bomb exploded near the top of the towering smokestack resulting in substantial damage to the ship and injuries to 16 men in the gun crews.

                  In need of a new strategy for surviving the steady Japanese aerial pounding, the crew came up with a plan to disguise the ship, making it look like an abandoned casualty of war. Meanwhile the ship hummed with activity by night.

                  老王vp 下载
                  Hiding in plain sight. After her second direct hit in the Bay of Mariveles, 老王2.2.7 went undercover. Flooding the ballast tanks pitched the ship toward one side. Smudge pots of oily rags set afire in the holds sent up ribbons of black smoke. Black "bomb holes" were painted on the decks. Cargo booms were left draped in the water. The smokestack was already splintered from the bomb. By day Japanese reconnaissance flyovers saw an abandoned, burned out and listing hulk. After dark the hull was righted and the ship became an all-night machine shop turning out parts and making damaged ships seaworthy. With this ruse, the Canopus escaped attack for four months. (Drawing by Lt.(JG) Willard C. Johnson, LT. JG, Canopus crew member, interned after the fall of Corregidor in Japan, 1942-45).

                  Time took its inevitable toll, however, as the Japanese noose continued to tighten around the Philippines. Allied forces were running out of food, supplies, ammunition and everything else save the will to resist.

                  MacArthur and staff left Corregidor on March 11, under orders from the president, bound for Australia, to regroup and plan their return.

                  On April 9, Major General Edward P. King Jr. surrendered Bataan, and 78,000 troops (66,000 Filipinos and 12,000 Americans), the largest such contingent of U.S. soldiers ever, were taken captive by the Japanese.

                  Upon the surrender, Canopus was ordered scuttled in Mariveles Bay, to deny her use to the enemy. That night, she was backed off into deep water, and the veteran ship ended a lifetime of service to the Navy on her own terms.

                  言情小说 第104页-小说下载|全本小说下载|TXT下载|TXT电子 ...:2021-3-1 · 晋江VP2021-2-23完结总书评数:43当前被收藏数:343营养液数:149文章积分:9,230,197文案为了不让偶像退圈,田雨琪真的是操碎了心。从美帝打飞的回来,过五关斩六将应聘上杨..

                  May 6: Corregidor surrendered. Fifteen thousand more Americans and Filipinos were captured, and the Philippines were lost.

                  June 4-9, 1942: In the Battle of Midway—only six months after Pearl Harbor—a US Naval force defeated an attacking Japanese fleet, inflicting devastating damage that proved irreparable and turning the tide of the war at sea.

                  1942-44: In the space of two years, steady reversals in ground fighting in places like Guadalcanal, the Sullivan Islands, Iwo Jima and other beachheads across the Pacific would put the Imperial Forces into a defensive crouch from which they could not rise. Dreams of empire quickly fading, Japan was gradually reduced to fighting not to lose, and not succeeding at that.

                  October 20, 1944: A few hours after his troops landed, Gen. MacArthur waded ashore onto the Philippine island of Leyte, making good on his famous promise. Only one-third of the men MacArthur left behind in March 1942 survived to see his return.

                  221 of Canopus's crewmen were evacuated to Corregidor on February 28, 1942 where they served with the Marines 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Battalions on beach defenses.

                  The final 327 crewmen were also evacuated to Corregidor and served in the 4th Marine 老王2.2.0Regiment's 4th Battalion Reserves (Provisional), which fought the final battle for the island fortress.

                  Nearly all of Canopus's crewmen were captured at Corregidor and interned as Japanese POWs, including 61 current or former AXPOW members.

                  All told, 212 Canopus crewmen were killed or listed as missing in action. The website On Eternal Patrol features personal memorial postings for each of those officers and men.

                  For the full text of Capt. E.L. Sackett's account of the USS Canopus's service in the Philippines: 老王vp2022.

                  posted 2/21/18

                  Another in a series of personal accounts by POWs of their last moments of freedom and the personal challenges of capture and captivity. These are stories drawn from biographies POWs either penned themselves or shared orally with family and friends who transcribed them for posterity. The voice and mood of these recollections understandably span a broad range of emotions. But each gives poignant testimony to the courage, resolve and indomitable hope of the men and women who, in war, fell captive to enemy forces and were forced — in the face of deplorable deprivations — to fight for their country in totally new and unexpected ways.
                  Christmas in the Camp: 1944
                  Ernest G. Liner enlisted in the Air Force and was inducted at Fort Bragg, NC, reporting to Miami Beach, FL in November of 1943.

                  Interior Design Kota Kinabalu - 中国 vpn:2021-5-25 · 天津友发钢管集团股伇有限公司成立于2021年12月,由原天津友发钢管集团有限公司等九家伋业经资产重组设立。总部座落于天津大邱庄,是集直缝焊管、热镀锌钢管、方矩形钢管、热镀锌方矩形钢管、内衬塑复合钢管、涂塑复合钢管、螺旋焊管等多种产品生产销售于一体的大型伋业集团,拥有“友发 ...

                  "I'd had to leave my girlfriend Franny in Baltimore for basic training," he recounted. "So I asked her to come to Charleston after basic and we'd get married. I rented a furnished room, a month ahead to hold it, and we got married June 3, 1944. When l I got leave, we went back to Baltimore together, but then I had to leave her again for Charleston.

                  Crew om tarmac

                  "Christmas time was coming, and one guy in our room suggested that we start saving our food for the holidays.

                  Then the idea came to us to make a cake for Christmas day. Each of us gave something from our parcels such as powdered milk, chocolate, sugar, or salt.

                  When Christmas day finally arrived we were ready to clebrate. We had lots of food and a big, beautiful Christmas cake.

                  Wedding Day June 3, 1944. Ft. Charleston AFB
                  Wedding Day June 3, 1944. Ft. Charleston AFB ( L to R ) Robert Marker, Ernest Liner, Francis, Julian Ford.

                  "From Charleston our crew went to Westover Field, Massachusetts and flew submarine patrol for two weeks. Then we were given a new plane of our own to take overseas. We left from Mitchell Field, New York and went to Bangor, Maine for supplies, then left the States for Newfoundland where we sat for about a week because of bad weather.

                  "We went on to the Azores when the weather finally broke, and gassed up for the flight to Africa. We landed in Marrakech, then on to Tunis, and from there we flew to Foggia, Italy where they took our plane. They gave us an old beaten up one in its place. Later we found out that this was customary; a new plane was given to a crew that was about finished and ready to go back to the United States

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                  "We started flying with other crews to learn how to fly in formation. Experienced pilots flew with us for a few days and then we were on our own to fly every day, weather permitting. We started flying actual combat missions on August 12, 1944.

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                  "Before we got to the target we'd lost an engine due to flack (ground fire). We saw one plane blow up and two others take hits. On three engines, we could not keep up with the formation. After the bombs were dropped, we were attacked by four fighters, lost another engine and suffered other damage as well.

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                  古伋言情小说,好看的古伋言情小说 - 奇书网:2021-1-13 · · 晋江VP2021-1-11完结总书评数:327 当前被收藏数:1337花畔自小被幽冥之主临渊养大,灵力无边,是冥界赫赫有名的一霸。自幽冥之主魂飞魄散后,众鬼想欺凌花畔,却个个被打的鼻青脸肿。

                  Peterson came down into the waist with his parachute on, and I had to move Tomlinson's body from the escape door so we could get out. I opened the hatch and motioned for Peterson to go out, but he motioned for me to go! I realized that we had to get out, so I jumped. Peterson told me later, when he saw my chute open he jumped, too.

                  "As we were going down, we realized we were being shot at. A German fighter came straight toward me. We had heard about fighter pilots shooting at airmen in their chutes. But, at the last minute this one tipped his wing and came close enough for me to see him motion to me.

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                  【图片】回复:新文老文一起推,加盘【言情小说吧】_百度贴吧:2021-1-9 · 新文老文一起推,加盘..啊!这该死的美味小说简介:晋江2021.6.14完结文案:唐语误入厨神争霸大赛的舞台,可她根本不会烹饪。一道道看似简单的题目,却要注入灵魂,信伎,人生感悟。什么鬼啊!(摔)为什么大家做菜的姿势总是奇奇

                  "We were taken to a small village about the size of Efland, North Carolina, and it had a jail. There I saw two of my crew members and four from another crew at the jail. We spent the night with bed bugs androaches. The next day we were moved through the village and were fortunate to have the German soldiers along to keep civilians off of us. They were throwing things, spitting and hollering "gangsters" at us. We understood why later on when we passed a hospital that had been bombed.

                  "We were put on a truck with eight others and transported to the city of Budapest. There we were given something to eat, the first food we'd had had since being shot down. We were questioned and our belts, shoelaces, rings, watches and everything we had in our pockets was taken from us.

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                  Our comforts consisted of one cot, a door with a slot through which bowls of soup were given to us twice a day and one loaf of bread a day, and one bucket for a toilet. No one ever spoke.

                  古伋言情小说,好看的古伋言情小说 - 奇书网:2021-1-13 · · 晋江VP2021-1-11完结总书评数:327 当前被收藏数:1337花畔自小被幽冥之主临渊养大,灵力无边,是冥界赫赫有名的一霸。自幽冥之主魂飞魄散后,众鬼想欺凌花畔,却个个被打的鼻青脸肿。

                  "After a few days we were taken under heavy guard to a train station where we were put on those notorious, forty by eight, boxcars that were known all over Germany: forty men or eight horses.

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                  "At this point everyone was filthy and many had dysentery, still with only one bucket in the boxcar. We stopped in a large rail yard one night and the R.A.F. came over, dropping bombs. The guards left for shelters and we were left behind, locked in the boxcar. Luckily the bombs missed us.

                  They did tear up some of the rails further ahead. We stayed there another day, locked up. Finally, we started again, attached to another train. We started seeing lots of bomb damage to towns and bridges as we passed through Poland.

                  "After five days the train stopped. We were at a train station in a small town where there were guards with dogs to escort us on a one mile walk to our camp. By this time, we were in pitiful shape. The camp was still being built, but we were assigned to barracks with twenty-two men, all together in one room.

                  We had a spigot to wash up with and a latrine which had ten holes. Many times you didn't have time to wait. For that reason it was a very good thing our government sent lots of clothes and shoes to the camps.

                  "We had roll call twice a day, and were given soup and one-fourth of a loaf of sawdust bread a day.

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                  "Cigarettes were often used as money; so many cigarettes for a candy bar, so many for a sweater, so many for socks and so many for a pencil. Many old prisoners were getting parcels from home that included clothes, food and cigarettes.

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                  "We had a number of POW's who went out of their minds and tried to climb the electric wire fences. Guards in the towers would shoot over their heads as a warning but always had to shoot them because they were so determined to try to escape.

                  "Men in another room had fermented sugar, raisins and other things to make alcohol, and we traded some of our cake for enough alcohol for all of us to have a couple of swigs. The alcohol was very potent, especially on our empty stomachs with that rich cake. Years later there an article about our cake appeared in The American Legion Magazine, December 1957.

                  "Other men had received musical instruments from home or were able to get the guards to get instruments for them. These musicians would get together and play. At Christmas the Germans allowed us to use a large hall and the men with instruments gave a wild party. You should have seen the crazy dancing that was done. Until the last song, "White Christmas," was played. After that each one of us went back to our room with tears rolling down our cheeks.

                  "We were getting war news from a small radio, the size of a pack of cigarettes, that had been smuggled in a piece at the time. We could receive the BBC once a day on a certain wavelength. One person listened, and told some other men who, in turn, told other men in each of the other barracks to spread the news of the day.

                  "We knew the war was about over and that the Russians were coming toward us. But, we did not know where or how fast until we started to hear big guns in the distance, getting louder. On February 5, 1945, word was sent around to get what you could carry and be prepared to move. Early the next morning, we were marched out the gate in groups of two hundred men, with one guard for every ten prisoners. With every twenty men there was a dog.

                  We went to a warehouse where Red Cross parcels had been hoarded by the thousand and were given all that we could carry. The snow was knee-deep, and the temperature was ten below zero.

                  "We walked about ten kilometers before we stopped for the night in a snow-covered open field. Every one of us was , hungry, thirsty and dead-tired. All that we had to eat or drink was the snow that we could pick up. Many, many nights during the march, we slept on the ground in the ice and snow. Peterson and I each had a blanket and a long Army overcoat made of heavy wool.

                  "We put one overcoat on the ground and covered up with the two blankets and the other overcoat. The blankets were thin like burlap and did not do much to keep us warm. We were not allowed to build a fire even if we had something that we could burn. One morning we awoke to find that someone had switched our top coat and exchanged it for a short one that only went to mid-calf. Our other one went down to my ankles, and was really warm.

                  "Not too long after we started on the march, I had my twenty-fourth birthday, on February 11, 1945. My good buddy Pete (Paul Peterson) presented me with a small piece of bread for my birthday gift. He had saved the bread for me from his small rations for a couple of days.

                  "The next morning we were still tired, had sore, blistered feet and were very hungry. All of us were cold, and some were sick. We had camped by a little stream which we drank from and used as a latrine. We were moved out and went to the road a short distance away and found that another group had used this stream ahead of us!

                  "We walked until almost dark when we reached a school where we had some protection from the outdoors. We had hoped to be able to keep warm inside, but our clothes, shoes and socks were soaking wet. We were warned by some of the older prisoners not to take off our shoes because our feet would swell and our shoes would shrink as they dried. So, we slept in our wet shoes.

                  "If we dared to take off our shoes for the night, we tied the strings together, and put them around our neck for safety. We could not march without shoes. We estimated that we had walked about sixteen kilometers. That night we could hear heavy guns, and British bombers came over and dropped bombs ahead of us.

                  "We started out again the next day. As we had been warned, some men could not get their shoes on because their shoes had shrunk. We were pushed again that day because the guards wanted to get further away from the Russians. Many more men began to drop out and we heard some shooting behind us. We felt that it was probably the guards carrying out their threats. We hardly stopped except maybe to let military traffic go by.

                  " The condition of the men continued to get worse. One night we were able to get into a big barn where we had hay and straw to lay in to keep warm and rest. That barn felt like a motel. We stayed over until the next day and then began another day of walking. We came to another prison camp which was used to get everyone together.

                  "There was every nationality you ever heard of. The French Moroccans had long black hair worn under a turban and they washed it every day under the spigot and took baths out in the open. When they went to the latrine, they carried a little pitcher with water, didn't use paper even if they had it, using instead their left hand. They then washed their left hand and did not use it to eat with.

                  "The young guards were taken away and replaced with old home guards. We actually felt sorry for them but we needed them to keep the civilians away from us. The home guards were getting desperate because they didn't want to be caught by the Russians. One day we were near an old mill sitting in the sun in a cemetery picking off body lice when we heard American bombers.

                  The bombers soon came into sight, straight toward us. They were flying low and we could see bomb doors open. We knew they were getting close to dropping bombs, so we took cover behind a rock wall. Each time a bomb exploded, the wall would start coming apart. It was a very close call for us. We later found out that they were bombing a bridge just beyond us.

                  "By then it was April and getting warmer. We did not have to walk as far, or fast, and found more schools and farms to sleep in. We began to hear more big guns behind us. On the night of April 24, 1945, we were in a big barn when we heard a terrible sound which turned out to be an American armored car coming to find out where we were.

                  言情小说 第104页-小说下载|全本小说下载|TXT下载|TXT电子 ...:2021-3-1 · 晋江VP2021-2-23完结总书评数:43当前被收藏数:343营养液数:149文章积分:9,230,197文案为了不让偶像退圈,田雨琪真的是操碎了心。从美帝打飞的回来,过五关斩六将应聘上杨..

                  We were liberated at Bitterfield on April 26, 1945. The Americans helped us cross the river on a temporary bridge because all of the bridges in the area had been blown up . Peterson and I were taken by a tank crew to a house that the Americans had taken. We were told to burn our clothes, which we gladly did.

                  We had not had a warm bath in two months, had worn the same shoes, had not had a haircut, and were in terrible condition. We both got into the largest bathtub I had ever seen, large enough to swim in. It was wonderful to be able to shave and put on clean clothes. Each of us was given a big glass of whiskey and all of the food we could eat. With full stomachs, we went to bed under a large feather blanket that made us feel like we had died and gone to heaven.

                  "We were trucked to the Hallie staging area and flown to Rheims. We then flew to La Harve on May 13, to Camp Lucky Strike, which had tents for all American POWs. We were fed around the clock and had egg nog between meals. After a few days you would not recognize your friends because they had clean clothes, haircuts, and gained a great deal of weight. Many men got sick from over-eating.

                  "By then the war was over, and we just had to wait for ships to come to take us home. Later we learned that they kept us longer so that we would gain some weight before we got home to our families. We boarded ships on June 5, and docked in New York on June 12. We were then taken to Camp Kilmer, NJ in preparation for going home. You were put in barracks according to the state you lived in.

                  古伋言情小说,好看的古伋言情小说 - 奇书网:2021-1-13 · · 晋江VP2021-1-11完结总书评数:327 当前被收藏数:1337花畔自小被幽冥之主临渊养大,灵力无边,是冥界赫赫有名的一霸。自幽冥之主魂飞魄散后,众鬼想欺凌花畔,却个个被打的鼻青脸肿。

                  (This write-up by Sgt. Ernest G Liner was taken from the 459th Bombardment Group's website)

                  (Click here for Ernest "Gordon" Liner's full biography posting on this site.)

                  posted 12/23/17

                  At National World War II Memorial, Veterans Remember the Day It All Started

                  Veterans of the Second World War gathered Thursday, Dec. 7, 2017, at the National World War II Memorial in Washington, D.C., for a wreath-laying ceremony held in remembrance of the attack on Pearl Harbor 76 year ago.

                  WASHINGTON � Twenty-one bells rang out Thursday at the National World War II Memorial in Washington, paying tribute to those who were killed at Pearl Harbor 76 years ago when the empire of Japan attacked an unsuspecting nation and kicked off America�s involvement in World War II.

                  Few of those who were at Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, are still alive; only a handful were able to attend the memorial ceremony at which Washington Redskins president Bruce Allen and other dignitaries extolled their virtues and celebrated their heroism.

                  Not many of the veterans were able to walk unassisted around the monument�s perimeter as they placed wreaths at the foot of the inscription that reads"Here we mark the price of freedom." Still, it�s an event that most said they�d attend again.

                  "I wish sometimes that I could live down here," said retired Senior Master Sgt. Harry Allen about the monument."I was here for the dedication, and I�ll come back every time.

                  A member of the military color guard passes by the Lincoln Memorial as the guard retires the colors toward the end of a wreath-laying ceremony held in Washington, D.C., as part of the remembrance for the 76th anniversary of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

                  Allen served in the Army during the war, and switched to the Air Force later on. On Thursday he was able to catch up with other vets. During and after the official ceremony, they grouped together, chatted and spent more than a little time talking to well-wishers, curious young people and folks just wanting to shake the hand of a bona fide war hero.

                  That interaction with the public is important to keeping the history of war fresh in people�s minds, said one veteran, and is a large part of why he shows up to these types of events.

                  "It�s a real pleasure to come out here and join them," said retired Army Col. Frederick Clinton, who fought across the French and German fronts in 1944-1945.

                  Like many at the time, Clinton lied about his age to join the military. At 16, he was already working a full-time job repairing aircraft wings for the Navy. When the other young men in town began to join the fight, he knew he had to as well.

                  "War was going on, I wanted to do my part," he said. That part extended past his initial enlistment � past World War II and into Korea, where he turned down a battlefield promotion since it hinged on him remaining in the infantry. He had had enough of that life, and became an adjutant general officer instead.

                  Like Allen, Clinton enjoyed attending the ceremony. It was somber, to be sure, but it was also a way for those being honored to connect with other veterans and to help keep the memory of those who died alive.

                  (Photo gallery of at Stars and Stripes website. Click here.)

                  posted 12/8/17

                  American Ex-Prisoners of War
                  Congressionally Chartered
                  David Eberly
                  Chief Executive Officer
                  A note to our readers:

                  At our last convention we could count the returnees and internees on one hand. These veterans served courageously in conflicts that are now simply chapters in the history books. Our heroes�soldiers, sailors, and airmen�are moving on, and their children and grandchildren are the new guardians of our freedom

                  The role that these POWs were called on to play, holding high the torch of liberty for our country and for the world, cannot be allowed to fade away. For our organization, now is the time to turn to the enduring task of keeping the memory alive, relevant and vital.

                  So here at AXPOW our mission is now moving from personal celebration to preservation of a legacy.

                  More than half of our active membership ranks are now Next of Kin members: surviving wives, sons, daughters, grandchildren and other relatives. With time their importance to the organization will only grow. We are tasking ourselves with serving our NOK members' needs by documenting family roots, keeping alive the traditions of POW remembrance and preserving POW histories, narratives and stories in readily accessible forms for future generations. And not just out of filial affection. The work our POWs did helped assure the lives and freedoms Americans still enjoy today. We must not forget what they did because we need to learn from it.

                  AXPOW has no plans to scale back its traditional roles in advocating, counseling and facilitating the efforts of POWs in obtaining medical and financial benefits they are entitled to. And we will continue to champion federal legislation that ensures veterans get the care and treatment they need.

                  Our website has proven a useful tool in pursuing these missions. But going forward this site is gradually giving less attention to organizational news, committees, officer assignments, peripheral service stories and the like and putting more emphasis on developing historical, biographical and contextual resources and feature stories that provide first-person testimony about what POWs endured in captivity and how they endured it.

                  • We�ve built a searchable POW/NOK database where visitors can research records of family members and loved ones and where researchers and scholars can access details about the size, scope and context of the POW experience, as well as its meaning.
                  • We've created a reference library of membership obituaries originally published in our organizational magazine, The Bulletin, with the immediate goal of extending it back to 2007.
                  • We have introduced a series of first-person articles drawn from membership biographical notes we have been collecting for years. These pieces will showcase compelling personal accounts, written in POWs' own words, of their experiences in the military, as prisoners of a hostile power on foreign soil, from capture through internment to liberation, and of their lives after returning home and taking up the task of putting their lives back together again.

                  言情小说 第104页-小说下载|全本小说下载|TXT下载|TXT电子 ...:2021-3-1 · 晋江VP2021-2-23完结总书评数:43当前被收藏数:343营养液数:149文章积分:9,230,197文案为了不让偶像退圈,田雨琪真的是操碎了心。从美帝打飞的回来,过五关斩六将应聘上杨..

                  Please visit us frequently as we work to keep this story alive and remind America of why it matters.

                  The fact is, today our website's traffic is far broader than our membership. Seventy percent is drawn from the general public. This audience needs to hear our voice as well, to make sure the values that weaned a generation of warriors -- who fought for their country and its legacy not just by force of arms but the strength of their character and the power of their ideals -- are not lost.

                  Why is it so important to say focused on what we must sometimes pay for freedom? Because we need to not just learn about our forbearers' bravery, we need to learn from them how to be brave. In case some future generation is called upon to pay that price again.

                  The future is coming and we are changing to meet it. We hope you will enjoy the journey with us and come back regularly. You are always welcome. Non Solum Armis


                  David Eberly
                  CEO, American Ex-Prisoners of War

                  First in a series of personal accounts by POWs of their last moments of freedom and the personal challenges of capture and captivity. These are stories drawn from biographies POWs either penned themselves or shared orally with family and friends who in turn transcribed them for posterity. The voice and mood of these recollections understandably span a broad range of emotions. But each of these stories gives its own poignant testimony to the courage, resolve and indomitable hope of the men and women who, in war, fell captive to enemy forces and were forced — in the face of deplorable deprivations — to fight for their country in totally new and unexpected ways.

                  古伋言情小说,好看的古伋言情小说 - 奇书网:2021-1-13 · · 晋江VP2021-1-11完结总书评数:327 当前被收藏数:1337花畔自小被幽冥之主临渊养大,灵力无边,是冥界赫赫有名的一霸。自幽冥之主魂飞魄散后,众鬼想欺凌花畔,却个个被打的鼻青脸肿。

                  The Anthon, Iowa native's B-17 Flying Fortress was shot down in the Italian Alps, near the town of St. Andra, during World War II on December 29, 1944. It was a disastrous event attended by several unusual circumstances.

                  言情小说 第104页-小说下载|全本小说下载|TXT下载|TXT电子 ...:2021-3-1 · 晋江VP2021-2-23完结总书评数:43当前被收藏数:343营养液数:149文章积分:9,230,197文案为了不让偶像退圈,田雨琪真的是操碎了心。从美帝打飞的回来,过五关斩六将应聘上杨..

                  His navigator, Arthur Frechette, was not quite so lucky — or maybe he was luckier. He too had exited the plane at the explosion, only with no parachute. Just seconds after regaining consciousness himself, he slammed into the steep side of a snow-covered mountain. He survived his injuries and, in time, went on to a long career teaching mathematics in Connecticut.

                  Even with that, the crew's luck had not yet run out. Lyon's co-pilot, Sam Wheeler, was blown out of the plane at 25,000 feet, also without a parachute. As he was falling he was struck in the face by a loose object, which he grabbed reflexively and which turned out to be ... a parachute. He quickly donned the captured chute and pulled the ripcord. It had belonged to Frechette. The story was recorded in "The Stars and Stripes" as "one of the more unusual" occurrences of the war, Lyon recalled.

                  【图片】回复:新文老文一起推,加盘【言情小说吧】_百度贴吧:2021-1-9 · 新文老文一起推,加盘..啊!这该死的美味小说简介:晋江2021.6.14完结文案:唐语误入厨神争霸大赛的舞台,可她根本不会烹饪。一道道看似简单的题目,却要注入灵魂,信伎,人生感悟。什么鬼啊!(摔)为什么大家做菜的姿势总是奇奇

                  The next morning Lyon helped Frau Frener churn butter, hoping to garner her favor and thus her aid in getting to nearby Austria where he would be safe. His effort had no effect. Soon German soldiers came to take him to the prison camp at Nuremberg. He'd stayed only three months at Nuremberg when he was sent on a forced march to another camp about 100 miles to the south, near Munich.

                  On the second meeting hosts and visitors greeted each other as friends. In 1965 Charlie returned to the Alps with his wife Mary Jo and family to the site of the crash where four of his 10-man crew perished and which changed his own life so dramatically.

                  Charles Lyon at Statue

                  Charlie and Mary Jo at Memorial dedicated to KIA crewmembers
                  Lt. Charles Lyon, POW mugshot
                  言情小说 第104页-小说下载|全本小说下载|TXT下载|TXT电子 ...:2021-3-1 · 晋江VP2021-2-23完结总书评数:43当前被收藏数:343营养液数:149文章积分:9,230,197文案为了不让偶像退圈,田雨琪真的是操碎了心。从美帝打飞的回来,过五关斩六将应聘上杨..

                  "I kept a diary on the march. I kept track of every place I�d slept," Lyon said. On his return, by following his diary they found every single spot. Also on that trip, the Lyons were befriended by a German, Martin Braun, who knowing English helped them negotiate the countryside. Braun, a former enemy soldier, subsequently made 16 trips to the United States visiting the Lyons.

                  "He was in anti-aircraft" Lyon said."I always kidded that he shot my plane down. He said no, they never could hit anything", Lyon recounted, laughing.

                  On that trip Lyon also remade the acquaintance of the son and three daughters of Josef Frener, the farmer who had rescued him from a tree the day of the crash. The three girls, by then adults, remembered "the handsome American airman" and his chocolate. Through an interpreter they told Lyon that they were the envy of every girl in school after the bomber was shot down. Their mother made silk dresses for them from the remnants of his parachute.

                  Touched by that 1965 trip, Lyon's son Tim made an individual pilgrimage to the crash site in 1971 when he graduated from high school. He now runs the family bee-keeping business in Herrick, S.D. a third-generation apiarist.

                  The third time Charlie and Mary Jo visited, in 1998, they went back to reconnect with old friends.

                  Not only did the natives of the small Italian village of St. Leonhard grandly host them, they made the Lyons their guests of honor at the dedication of two memorials to American airmen who died nearby while fighting against Italy and its German allies.

                  古伋言情小说,好看的古伋言情小说 - 奇书网:2021-1-13 · · 晋江VP2021-1-11完结总书评数:327 当前被收藏数:1337花畔自小被幽冥之主临渊养大,灵力无边,是冥界赫赫有名的一霸。自幽冥之主魂飞魄散后,众鬼想欺凌花畔,却个个被打的鼻青脸肿。

                  The dedication was at Brixen, a larger town near the crash sites. Both monuments were blessed there by the Church, a requirement in Italy, then set on footings at their respective rural sites.

                  Lyon was impressed at the generosity of spirit the people of the area demonstrated. "Maybe it's not unprecedented, to put up monuments to the enemy dead, but they have their own dead," he mused. However, in the span of less than a lifetime Lyon had gone from being a prisoner in enemy territory to being among the first Americans ever entertained by officials of Brixen town since its founding in 901 AD.

                  And once again Lyon visited the exact spot where his plane had crashed. He and Mary Jo brought home a lot of memories and a new small bag filled with a few dozen pieces of rust-encrusted metal."It�s just a bunch of junk," he said,"but to me it�s history."

                  (Click here for Charles Lion's full biography posting on this site.)

                  posted 9/23/17

                  Statement of Charles Susino, Jr., National Commander/Legislative Officer of the American Ex-Prisoners of War, before the Committees on Veterans� Affairs, U.S. Senate/U.S. House Of Representatives, Washington, D.C., March 22, 2017.
                  AXPOW National Commander Charles Susino, Jr.

                  Chairmen and members of the House and Senate Veteran�s Affairs committee and guests: My name is Charles Susino, Jr., National Commander of the American Ex-Prisoners of War. Thank you for the opportunity to express our comments today.

                  We are grateful for your committees' efforts in the 114th Congress. However, there is more work to be done to protect our veterans — both on new legislation and improving implementation of legislation already passed.

                  We welcome VA Secretary David Shulkin. We worked well with him in his position as Under Secretary of Health under Secretary McDonald and expect that relationship to continue in his new position. We understand he will want to develop his agenda for the VA however we want to insure that critical initiatives do not get sidelined with the change in administration.

                  A VA directive targeted to eliminate veteran�s homelessness has been in effect for several years and results have been positive — an almost 70% decrease in the homeless veteran population. Sadly, however, that means that nearly 40,000 veterans are still on America's streets, without the basic shelter they both need and deserve. The Secretary should report progress and provide a fresh look at proposed actions to achieve this goal. It is a National disgrace that any American veteran has no place to call home.

                  President Trump has instituted a hiring freeze. There is an exception protocol to receive permission for hiring. We ask the Secretary to be both aggressive and vigilant in requesting authorizations to hire for all open positions that are health care service providers to the veterans. The commitment begun under President Abraham Lincoln cannot be compromised.

                  Recently, President Trump stated his commitment in supporting our troops. We accept and welcome his commitment and ask for his support in achieving the legislative agendas of the veterans� service organizations. Actions need to accompany the words to provide the necessary results.

                  Our legislative agenda has been very consistent year to year. It is based on the earned benefits of the veteran for serving their country. Its center is healthcare and fair compensation to the veteran and their family. This level of consistency helps focus our efforts but there is unfinished business. In 1986, Congress and the President mandated VA health care for veterans with service connected disabilities as well as other special groups of veterans. It included veterans up to WWI. We ask Congress to revisit the special groups and update to include veterans of WWII, Korea, Vietnam, Cold War, and our recent conflicts in the Middle East.

                  A common thread among the veteran service organizations has been improving the performance of the VA. Last year at this time, we publicly stated that we supported Secretary McDonald�s efforts to change the VA culture and reorganize to obtain better access, treatment experience, and understanding for the veteran without compromising efficiencies and accountabilities. The Secretary outlined to you his plan to transform the VA into a high performance organization. It was based on changing the VA culture and reorganizing to obtain better access, treatment experience, and understanding for the veteran without compromising efficiencies and accountabilities.

                  We are anxious to hear from Secretary Shulkin outlining his initiatives and any changes he determines are required to achieve the goals necessary to best serve our veterans. We realize it is challenging, but the changes must start at the top and get to where the veterans� experience occurs in the near future.

                  To achieve the needed results in the VA the rules need to change. The VA needs to broadly adopt management policies to facilitate the culture change required within the VA. There are several Bills that partially address the issue but it must be broad in nature and provide management latitude but require a high level of accountability. Any single Bill on the management bonuses, employee discipline, etc. is insufficient. It must mirror HR policies of select businesses where achievement is high in efficiency and accountability therefore a comprehensive Bill is needed to achieve the desired result.

                  女孩小说、好看的女孩小说、好看的女孩小说推荐、超好看的 ...:2021-6-7 · 经典的,超好看的女孩小说推荐,高分女孩小说,女孩小说,女孩小说下载、女孩电子书下载、女孩全本txt小说电子书下载 言情小说] 晋江2021-05-20完结文案:在我还来不及学会爱的时候,不小心就已经爱深了;在你还不懂得爱的时候,不小心叫我被爱灼伤了。曾经那个把爱捧于手奉于心想献给你的女

                  H.R. 104: Helping Homeless Veterans Act of 2017, to make permanent certain programs that assist homeless veterans and other veterans with special needs

                  H.R. 333: Disabled Veterans Tax Termination Act, permitting veterans with a service-connected disability of less than 50% to concurrently receive both retired pay and disability compensation

                  H.J. Res. 3: Approving the location of a memorial to commemorate and honor the members of the Armed Forces who served on active duty in support of Operation Desert Storm or Operation Desert Shield

                  H.R. 544: Private Corrado Piccoli Purple Heart Preservation Act, to provide for penalties for the sale of any Purple Heart awarded to a member of the Armed Forces.

                  老王v2.2.8 To eliminate the sunset of the Veterans Choice Program, and for other purposes

                  S. 24: A bill to expand eligibility for hospital care and medical services under section 101 of the Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 to include veterans who are age 75 or older.

                  During this election year, there have been calls from some candidates to shift VA from its primary role of directly providing care to that of simply paying outside providers in order to control costs and manage service. We ask that Congress not waiver from its responsibility to protect any intrusion that threatens the promises made to those heroes who serve their country. While the VA may be cumbersome and unwieldy, it offers the best care for our veterans in terms of efficiency and quality of service. VA providers have walked the "mile in their shoes" as veterans themselves.

                  With respect to funding Memorials, it is gratifying to hear the progress of the WWI memorial and others. We encourage Congress to continue to fund public awareness initiatives. It is a critical component of public awareness and education on the hardships of war. As time passes, there are less and less of us that experienced first-hand how life in our country changed in support of a large scale war. While we need to protect our freedoms we also must remember the cost of freedom is very high.

                  Please eliminate the veterans� means test for access health care. Should a veteran who worked two or three jobs to provide better for his family later be deprived of healthcare? Each has served his country and earned the same benefits so let us not deprive any deserving veteran of healthcare.

                  It is most insulting to us when we hear the use of the word entitlements regarding any benefits to the veteran. These are all earned benefits where the veteran has served and sacrificed. Calling them "entitlements" relegates the program to a handout and needs to be eliminated from the language used for veterans.

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                  God Bless Our Troops
                  God Bless America
                  Thank you

                  Charles Susino, Jr.
                  National Commander/Legislative Director
                  American Ex-Prisoners of War

                  March 22, 2017
                  Joint Hearing: Legislative Presentation of the American Ex-Prisoners of War before the House/Senate Veterans Affairs Committees

                  古伋言情小说,好看的古伋言情小说 - 奇书网:2021-1-13 · · 晋江VP2021-1-11完结总书评数:327 当前被收藏数:1337花畔自小被幽冥之主临渊养大,灵力无边,是冥界赫赫有名的一霸。自幽冥之主魂飞魄散后,众鬼想欺凌花畔,却个个被打的鼻青脸肿。
                  老王vp 下载
                  Flag-Raising at The Battle of Iwo Jima by California artist Chris Nogues

                  On February 23, 1945 U.S. Marines from the 3rd Platoon, E Company, 2nd Battalion, 28th Regiment of the 5th Division, in the midst of a fierce and protracted battle, raised a U.S. flag at the crest of Mount Suribachi, the highest peak and most strategic position on Iwo Jima. And then a few hours later they did it again.

                  Earlier in that year, U.S. military command determined to take control of Iwo Jima in advance of an aerial campaign against the Japanese home islands. A tiny volcanic island located in the Pacific about 700 miles southeast of Japan, Iwo Jima was to be a base for fighter aircraft and an emergency-landing site for bombers.

                  Marine photographer Louis Lowery recorded the first flag-raising, an act that greatly inspired the American soldiers fighting for control of Suribachi�s slopes.

                  A short while later second batch of Marines headed up to Suribachi's crest with an even larger flag. On a longer pole.

                  Joe Rosenthal, an Associated Press photographer, recorded this second raising along with a Marine still-photographer and a motion-picture cameraman.

                  Rosenthal took three photographs. The first showed five Marines and a Navy corpsman struggling to hoist the heavy pole into place. It became the 老王2.2.3most reproduced photograph in history and won Rosenthal a Pulitzer Prize.

                  The accompanying motion-picture footage (which can be found on youtube) made clear the picture was shot in real time and not posed. A second photo was similar but less dramatic. The third showed a group of 18 soldiers smiling and waving for the camera.

                  Many of these men, including three of the six soldiers seen raising the flag in the famous Rosenthal photo, were killed before the Battle for Iwo Jima ended in late March.


                  The Japanese garrison on the island numbered 22,000 heavily entrenched men. They had been expecting an Allied invasion for months and had constructed an intricate system of underground tunnels, fortifications, and artillery emplacements.

                  On February 19, following three days of naval and aerial bombardment, the first wave of U.S. Marines stormed onto Iwo Jima. By that first evening, under incessant mortar fire, 30,000 U.S. Marines had established a solid beachhead.

                  During the next few days, the Marines advanced in the face of heavy artillery fire and suicidal charges from Japanese infantry.

                  On February 23, they reached the crest of 550-foot Mount Suribachi, and the next day the slopes of the extinct volcano were secured.

                  By March 3, U.S. forces controlled all three airfields on the island, and on March 26 the last Japanese defenders on Iwo Jima were wiped out.

                  Only 200 of the original 22,000 Japanese garrison were captured alive. More than 6,000 Americans died taking Iwo Jima, with some 17,000 wounded.

                  posted 3/5/17

                  Sixty-third Annual Veterans Day National Ceremony — Arlington, Nov. 11.
                  Click for Photo Album

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                  Horses have been an integral part of military history for thousands of years, in and out of battle. For the most part, many of these practices have been phased out. (Although it should be noted that for the first time since WWII and the cessation of the Cavalry, at the beginning of Operation Enduring Freedom American soldiers on horses were inserted into the mountains of Northern Afghanistan.)

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                  Most prominent are the members of the Caisson platoon of the 3d United States Infantry "The Old Guard." Located at Joint Base Myer/Henderson Hall (Ft. Myer), The Old Guard is a remarkable volunteer unit, the Army�s oldest infantry regiment, dating to 1784. It is responsible for military ceremonies at The White House, the Pentagon and at national memorials; maintains the 24/7 vigil at the Tomb of the Unknowns; and serves as mounted escort for funerals at Arlington National Cemetery.

                  Utilization of the Caisson Platoon is an honor reserved for officers of the U.S. military who are eligible for burial or inurnment] The horses are saddle-broken when received, but the soldiers are infantrymen, not usually trained horsemen; both undergo rigorous training.

                  A McClellan saddle is used, and both rider and horse must maintain erect posture and high professional standards. The soldiers learn to prepare and clean the saddle, stall and horse, shine 314 pieces of brass each morning, and maintain unique ceremonial tack and harness.

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                  Soldiers enjoy long but apparently fulfilling hours in their weekly alternating stints, taking care of the horses and the equipment, and ceremonial duties. Most horses live at Ft. Myer but some rest during off-weeks at nearby Ft. Belvoir. The platoon is comprised of 4 riding teams, roughly 50 service men and women, and about 60 horses, all observed by a watchful stable-resident black tabby cat called Rihanna.

                  The 5 black caissons, built in 1918, and used for 75mm cannons, were originally equipped with ammunition chests, spare wheels, and tools. Today these have been removed and replaced with the flat deck on which the casket rests. For cremains, the urn may be placed in an elevated niche at the casket back which is covered by the flag. For casket security, they are currently replacing brass tabs; the paint and other accoutrements are kept immaculate.

                  古伋言情小说,好看的古伋言情小说 - 奇书网:2021-1-13 · · 晋江VP2021-1-11完结总书评数:327 当前被收藏数:1337花畔自小被幽冥之主临渊养大,灵力无边,是冥界赫赫有名的一霸。自幽冥之主魂飞魄散后,众鬼想欺凌花畔,却个个被打的鼻青脸肿。

                  All seven are saddled, but only the three on the left side and the Section Horse (which is the guide horse) are ridden. In war, the three without mounts would have held supplies, feed or were intended as replacements. The horses may mischievously roll their eyes or nip at one another while being prepared, but once hooked up and work starts, they are categorically all business. One of the oldest and most evocative of military traditions in a full honor funeral is that of the rider less, caparisoned ("cap" or ornamented horse).

                  It is said that this dates back to the time of Genghis Khan, the saddle being empty and the rider�s boots reversed in the stirrups, signifying that the service member would never ride again (the ancient ceremony also involved sacrificing the horse for burial alongside the deceased warrior). The riderless horse is now authorized for Army and Marines burials for those of the rank of COL and above. A service member escort carries the deceased�s colors with the unit.

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                  言情小说 第104页-小说下载|全本小说下载|TXT下载|TXT电子 ...:2021-3-1 · 晋江VP2021-2-23完结总书评数:43当前被收藏数:343营养液数:149文章积分:9,230,197文案为了不让偶像退圈,田雨琪真的是操碎了心。从美帝打飞的回来,过五关斩六将应聘上杨..

                  He arrived as a 6-year old at Ft. Myer from the Ft. Reno, OK cavalry remount station. He was the last of the Quartermaster-issue horses branded with the U.S. Army brand on his left shoulder and his Army serial number 2V56 on the left side of his neck. Black Jack served in more than a thousand funerals (mostly at Arlington), but is perhaps best known as the compelling rider-less horse at state funerals including John F. Kennedy (1963), Herbert Hoover (1964), Lyndon B. Johnson (1973), and General Douglas MacArthur (1964).

                  女孩小说、好看的女孩小说、好看的女孩小说推荐、超好看的 ...:2021-6-7 · 经典的,超好看的女孩小说推荐,高分女孩小说,女孩小说,女孩小说下载、女孩电子书下载、女孩全本txt小说电子书下载 言情小说] 晋江2021-05-20完结文案:在我还来不及学会爱的时候,不小心就已经爱深了;在你还不懂得爱的时候,不小心叫我被爱灼伤了。曾经那个把爱捧于手奉于心想献给你的女

                  For the mourning, assassination-stunned nation watching the Kennedy funeral on TV, Black Jack and his remarkable spirit would symbolize the event�s aura. According to an article by a Pentagram reporter, on the day of that funeral, his handler (who had been with him in 70 funerals), said he was particularly unruly and nearly uncontrollable. Spooked by a loud noise as a caisson wheel snagged on a large steel grate as they passed the Treasury Department, the horse also stepped on the handler�s foot at St. Matthews Cathedral, and remained agitated throughout the procession.

                  One of his greatest admirers was Jacqueline Kennedy, who asked the Secretary of the Army if she could purchase him when he retired. Her request was acknowledged; she later received his caparison, which included his saddle, bridle, saddle blanket, sword, boots and spurs. However, when not working, the horse was known in the barn as a"ham," putting on a show when a child or camera was present. Thousands swarmed to his fan club and even baked him his favorite butter pecan birthday cakes, fed him sugar cubes and generally fussed over him to his delight. Richard Nixon sent him a birthday card.

                  He retired in 1973, his health deteriorating. Following his death in February 1976, some 400 people attended the funeral. His cremains were carried on the caisson he had led so many times. He was buried with Full Military Honors on Summerall Field, a parade site usually reserved for senior retirements, near the flagpole, with a special horseshoe configuration of shrubs and a bas-relief headstone. Several books were written about him including Robert Knuckle�s Black Jack: Americans Famous Riderless Horse (2002).


                  The riderless horse tapped for Ronald Reagan�s funeral in June 2004 was Sergeant York, a black 15-hands Standardbred gelding with bright eyes and a roached mane (making him look a bit like Opie Taylor on The Andy Griffith Show, apologies to Ron Howard).

                  He started out life with the insipid name of Allaboard Jules who"tried hard" but had had a rather lackluster career until 1996 (in 3 years, won 5 of 23 starts) at Freehold Raceway in NJ. Donated to the Army in 1997, he had an undeniably engaging personality, but at the first, he was said to be"more Gomer Pyle than George Patton."

                  Since he was stabled with other horses with historically relevant names such as the two brothers Grant and Lee, who had already made themselves known for excellence, the Old Guard soldiers gave Jules a much more suitable name (for the WWI hero Sgt. Alvin C. York). The skinny new arrival needed to bulk up a bit. In describing his stable behavior, it was said that whenever there were visitors, he would stick his head into the aisle and shake it in circles to get attention for a pat.

                  His initial goofiness morphed into a more enduring gentle charm, although he (like many of his stablemates), continued to mug for the cameras. He came to love his new home where he was decidedly the"king", even in retirement; and developed into a master of all responsibilities from pulling marriage carriages to pageants and parades, and was never distracted. He became more and more professional in demeanor and accepted all responsibilities with grace and class. See

                  Of more recent horses, Freedom is a 12 year old cream-colored Quarter Horse gelding at 15.2 hands, acquired in 2010 as a therapeutic riding horse at the Ft. Belvoir Training Facility. He had to be retired from caisson duty when he was diagnosed with uveal cysts of his eye; put up for adoption, he is now living with 27 year old Jenna Sears in King George County, VA, where he will be used for casual trail riding.

                  Kennedy is a 15-year old black Standardbred gelding at 14.3 hands. Purchased after retiring from racing and groomed to be a caisson horse, he impressed all who encountered him with his professionalism and elegance as the riderless horse. However, in time, Kennedy developed the habit of kicking soldiers as well as the occasional car tire, so he was retired from service and put up for adoption.

                  An article in The Washington Post on July 12, 2016 noted that Kennedy had just been adopted by a former caisson soldier, Carroll Urzendowski, at Ft. Polk, LA., whose family includes his wife, 3 and 4 year old kids, and an 85 acre ranch in TX. Urzendowski described Kennedy as"interesting: Let�s say he will take advantage of his handler if the handler allows him to .... It�s like raising a child." He intends to stop the hoof pawing business by getting Kennedy to trust him again and giving him something else to think about.

                  【图片】回复:新文老文一起推,加盘【言情小说吧】_百度贴吧:2021-1-9 · 新文老文一起推,加盘..啊!这该死的美味小说简介:晋江2021.6.14完结文案:唐语误入厨神争霸大赛的舞台,可她根本不会烹饪。一道道看似简单的题目,却要注入灵魂,信伎,人生感悟。什么鬼啊!(摔)为什么大家做菜的姿势总是奇奇

                  Quincy developed sore feet (diagnosed as navicular disease, requiring a special therapeutic shoe and medications), was retired and made available for adoption. The Post�s July piece noted that Quincy had just been adopted by Sean Sutton and Kristen Whittaker, a veteran and his wife with a 7 and a 10 year old at Whit Acres Farm in MA. Quincy�s new digs include automatic fly spraying in summer, heated barn in winter, a padded stall and 7 other permanent horse residents and 5 or more boarders receiving veterinary care.

                  In the long list of larger-than-life Arlington military horses, Klinger is unique. A black Percheron Morgan Cross Breed with a white star on his forehead, Klinger weighs 1,400 pounds and stands 16 hands high. He was born on a farm in Lamar, IA and worked there until he was 3 years old when he was donated to the Caisson Platoon (March 2003).

                  In 2010, Betsy Beard [who lost her only son Army Specialist Bradley S. Beard in Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2004] of the nonprofit Tragedy Assistance Program for Survivors (TAPS) lovingly wrote a fictionalized version of his story, Klinger: A Story of Honor and Hope (ISBN #978-0-578-05431-5, published by TAPS with the help of the American Legion Child Welfare Foundation).

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                  In describing the award-winning small book, Deborah Mullen, wife of former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff ADM Mike Mullen (who gave a copy of the book to England�s Queen Elizabeth II), said:"Klinger is a beautiful touching story, and written so simply, yet managing to capture the sadness, the pride, the honor — and more. Every American should read this book."

                  Klinger, one of the largest of the horses, was also one of the most gentle and soon became a favorite. Klinger has served as the Wheel Horse closest to the caisson and as the Section Horse, leading the others through the cemetery. Inducted in 2012 to the Equus Foundation Horse Stars Hall of Fame, Klinger has become a celebrity around Washington, having participated in more than 5,000 burial ceremonies, led Presidential Inaugural Parades, and has been the repeated guest of honor at the Washington International Horse Show Kids Day which established the Klinger Award in 2012.

                  The sometimes mischievous Klinger (many will remember the favorite actor Jamie Farr�s Corporal Maxwell Q. Klinger, of M*A*S*H) is an easy-going giant who loves visitors and sometimes lets soldiers sit on him when he is lying down. Klinger patiently worked with the wounded warriors undergoing Equine Assisted Psychotherapy Program at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center.

                  It is worth mentioning that Arlington National Cemetery is not the only facility that reveres and well uses their equine soldiers�one perfect recent collateral example was the horse who drew the caisson at the September 2015 Andersonville POW Museum and Cemetery burial ceremony for 13,000 POWS. The earnest hard working white horse, named Traveler, was purchased in Georgia from the Amish in Ohio who had trained him. According to Charles Barr, Cemetery Administrator in correspondence with Florida�s Jim"Moe" Moyer of The Ride Home, Traveler worked the funeral in association with the Hall County Sheriff�s Department Honor Guard team, pulling the caisson on which rested the pine casket containing child-made individual 13,000 stars.

                  When an Army caisson horse is retired from caisson duty, and if no other equestrian military units need his services, he may go on the literally greener pastures, as part of the adoption process. The Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office, in association with the 3d U.S. Infantry Regiment�s Caisson Horse Adoption program ensure that the horses are all placed for free in good homes and are well cared for in retirement from military service. This is not an insubstantial commitment for the adopter.


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                  In the most recent cases of Kennedy and Quincy, the press became involved, thousands of individuals posted messages, and 25 families applied for each horse showing a willingness to accept quite a responsibility. A vigorous vetting process is undertaken including site visits after review of the extensive questionnaire responses.

                  These huge, valiant proficient four-legged soldiers are known as consummate professionals when at work; they hold heads high, remain unperturbed (by flapping flags, cannons and planes, guns, kids, noise and sundry frights), are calm and motionless for hours and diligently perfect the routine of 8 funerals a day.

                  They must be unexcitable but alert, and have steady nerves. They are bright, clever, occasionally moody, beautiful and often funny, and tend to be playful or mischievous when bored...well rounded soldiers who honor others with their expert precision and presence.

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                  There is much written about the noble horse, but two adages seem appropriate in this context: An old Yiddish proverb states:"The wagon rests in winter; the sleigh in summer; the horse never"; and an old Arabian proverb similarly notes:"The wind of heaven is that which blows between a horse�s ears."

                  posted 9/14/16